Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions of low-grade in HIV-infected women: recurrence, persistence, and progression, in treated and untreated women
ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are more predisposed than HIV-negative women to develop squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) of the uterine cervix, and cervical dysplasia may be of higher grade in HIV-positive women than in HIV-negative subjects, with more extensive and multi-centric involvement of the lower genital tract by human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated lesions. Moreover, recurrence and progression rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is particularly higher in immunocompromised women.
Retrospective case-control study of HIV-positive women and HIV-negative controls, all affected by low-grade SIL of the uterine cervix, treated by loop excision or followed-up without treatment. Correlation of progression and recurrence of SIL with HIV status and CD4+ count.
From September 1990 to October 1997, 75 HIV-positive low-grade-SIL patients, 47 treated and 28 followed-up without treatment, and 75 HIV-negative low-grade-SIL controls, 45 treated and 30 followed-up.
Among treated patients, 17/47 (36.2%) HIV-positive and 5/45 (11.1%) controls had recurrence (P < 0.0101, O.R. = 4.53, 95% CI = 1.5-13.7), progression of untreated lesion was seen in 15/28 (53.6%) HIV-positive and 7/30 (23%) controls (P < 0.05, O.R. = 3.79, 95% CI = 1.23-11.69). The risk of recurrence or progression of low-grade SIL linked to HIV seropositivity is about 4-5 times higher in comparison with seronegative counterpart, matched for age, risk factors and lesion size. More significantly, considering the cut-off of 200 CD4+/mm(3) in HIV-positive women, 13/17 cases of recurrence (P < 0.05, O.R. = 4.88, 95% CI = 1.28-18.58) and 10/15 cases with progression (P < 0.05, O.R. = 6.67, 95% CI = 1.24-35.73) were immunocompromised (<200 CD4+/mm3), with a significant higher risk of recurrence or progression linked to immunodeficiency status. Considering time of progression or recurrence, during follow-up, Kaplan-Meier curves shows that HIV-positive status and immunodeficiency are correlated with more rapid evolution of cervical dysplasia and HPV-related lesions: comparison of recurrence in treated patients report P < 0.005 and progression in untreated P<0.05 (Mantel-Haenszel log-rank test).
Immunological status seems to be a determinant factor in prognosis of cervical SIL, HIV-positive women affected by this lesion, even if low-grade, need more aggressive management than the immunocompetent counterpart. Strict cytologic and colposcopic screening is recommended and CD4+ count and HPV-DNA testing may be useful risk indicators. Excisional procedures are preferred, while ablative treatments or wait and see policy may expose to some risk this type of population with poor compliance to follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate an association between certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Sexually active females (n = 487; 19-61 years old) were enrolled in the study. Subjects underwent Pap testing and evaluations of HIV and HPV infection status on uterine cervical cell samples. HPV genotyping was performed using a Kurabo GeneSQUARE DNA microarray test. Overall, 23 HPV genotypes were detected, and the most prevalent HPV genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-39, -54, -45, -56, -53, -31, -42, -16, -68, and -51. HPV-30, -53, -54, -61, and -66, which are associated with abnormal cytology, are categorized as intermediate-risk in this study. Detection of both high- and intermediate-risk HPV types was significantly associated with cervical abnormality and HIV infection. Multivariate analysis revealed that some high-risk HPV types (HPV-31, -45, -51, -56, and -59) and most intermediate-risk HPV types were associated with HIV infection, while the high-risk types (HPV-16, -18, -33, -35, -39, -52, -58, and -68) were not. The oncogenic effect of the most malignant HPV types (e.g., HPV-16 and -18) appear to be lower, while that of intermediate-risk types are greater, in areas with a high prevalence of HIV infection.Journal of Medical Virology 11/2011; 83(11):1988-96. DOI:10.1002/jmv.22203 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report a case of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis human papillomavirus (HPV) type 5 and HPV type 16 in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Furthermore, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like cutaneous eruptions after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy has never been described as a manifestation of an immune restoration syndrome.European journal of dermatology: EJD 03/2007; 17(2):149-52. DOI:10.1684/ejd.2007.0129 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women are at high risk of co-infection from human papillomavirus (HPV) and of developing squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. From April 1997 to March 1999, 86 women, affected by high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (H-SILs), were enrolled: 41 were HIV+ (CD4+ count >500/ml) and 45 were HIV-. The diagnosis of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (H-SIL) was established for each patient by Pap test, colposcopy and guided biopsy. For all samples, the HPV/DNA test was also performed by PCR. The patients' lesions and recurrence were treated by cone biopsy or large loop excision (LEEP). Annual controls were performed for 5 years. A high rate of alcohol and drug use (60.7% vs. 31.4%; p=0.004; 80% vs. 27.5%; p<0.001, respectively) and number of male partners (4.5 vs. 3.0; p<0.001) were found in the HIV+ patients, compared to the HIV- patients. Both groups were HPV+ for high-risk types. No difference was found in the percentage of patients who had received a second LEEP. Our findings suggest the treatment of H-SIL in HIV-positive women, for a longer disease-free survival, or a lower risk of developing cervical cancer.Anticancer research 07/2006; 26(4B):3167-70. · 1.87 Impact Factor