Determination of gag and env subtypes of HIV-1 detected among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Manipur, India: evidence for intersubtype recombination.
ABSTRACT The majority of HIV-1 transmission in Manipur, one of the northeastern states of India, is through the sharing of needles and syringes among the injecting drug users (IDUs). A total of 28 HIV seropositive samples were used to determine the HIV-1 subtypes with respect to both gag and envelope genes. The specific regions within gag and envelope genes were amplified from PBMC DNA by nested PCR using appropriate primers. These amplicons were used in heteroduplex mobility assay followed by DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of respective regions showed that 89% of samples (25/28) were infected with subtype C with respect to both gag and envelope genes; however, 11% of the samples (3/28) showed subtype discordance with respect to the envelope (C2-V3) and gag (p24-p7) genomic regions. Simplot analysis of the discordant samples showed the presence of intersubtype recombination between subtype C and Thai B; two samples were found to be subtype C in envelope but Thai B in gag, whereas, one sample was found to be subtype Thai B in envelope and 'C' in gag region.
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ABSTRACT: India is considered to have a low incidence of HIV infection so far. Nevertheless, an epidemic of HIV infection has been reported recently among intra-venous drug users (IVDUs) in Manipur, a north-eastern state of India, bordering Myanmar (Burma). This report describes the epidemiology of intravenous drug abuse in the state of Manipur. Four hundred and fifty IVDUs were interviewed. Their age (median 24 years) and sex patterns (95% male) differ from those reported from western countries. It is estimated that there may be approximately 15,000 such addicts in a population of 1.8 million and 50% of them could be positive for HIV. Knowledge of AIDS and its transmission is significantly higher among the addicts than non-addict controls. Free availability of heroin was found to be the major factor responsible for the high rate of addiction. It is presumed that two other neighbouring States which are well-connected to Manipur and also have a common border with Myanmar (part of the 'Golden Triangle') may have a similar problem with HIV infection.Journal of Infection 10/1991; 23(2):201-7. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the extent of HIV-1 genetic variation in Indian patients. To avoid any bias in selecting viral variants, HIV-1 DNA was amplified directly from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients and sequenced. Genetic similarity between Indian sequences and other geographic isolates was analysed by phylogenetic analysis algorithms. A fragment encompassing the C2/V3-V5 regions of HIV-1 gp120 was amplified from the lymphocyte DNA of 12 Indian patients. Multiple clones from each patient were sequenced. Nucleotide sequences encompassing about 650 base pairs were aligned for the Indian and other geographically distinct isolates. Inter-isolate relationships were analysed by means of distance, parsimony and neighbour-joining algorithms. Nucleotide sequence comparisons showed low interpatient variation. Amino-acid comparisons revealed a high degree of homology between Indian sequences in this study and those studied earlier. On distance and parsimony trees, most of the Indian sequences clustered together as subtype C. However, sequences from three patients also showed significant homologies and phylogenetic clustering outside of subtype C. The predominant strain of HIV-1 in India belongs to subtype C and little interpatient nucleotide sequence divergence in the majority of cases suggests recent spread of HIV-1 in this region. This study also presents the first evidence for non-C subtypes in the Indian population with two epidemiologically linked samples remaining unclassified for any existing env subtype. The presence of variant subtypes in Indian patients sheds light on the transmission routes of HIV-1 to India and emphasizes the need to include these sequences in vaccine development strategies.AIDS 08/1995; 9(7):685-90. · 6.41 Impact Factor
- Bioinformatics. 01/2001; 17:1244-1245.