Cholesterol lowering effects of nuts compared with a Canola oil enriched cereal of similar fat composition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases (Impact Factor: 3.32). 09/2005; 15(4):284-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2005.01.006
Source: PubMed


Small quantities of nuts protect against subsequent cardiovascular risk. There is speculation that the cholesterol lowering effect associated with nut consumption arises primarily from the fatty acid composition of nuts but may be caused by some other component. To evaluate this possibility we compared the effect of various nuts, against a Canola oil based cereal with a comparable fatty acid profile, on lipids, lipoproteins and fatty acids to determine whether the fatty acid profile of nuts explains their cholesterol lowering effects.
Twenty-eight men and women with mean (s.d.) levels of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol of 6.0 (1.1) mmol/L, and 4.1 (1.0) mmol/L, respectively and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.9 (3.2) kg/m2 took part in a randomised cross over trial. For two periods of six weeks, separated by a four-week washout, participants were asked to consume a low saturated fat diet, which included either 30 g/d nuts (nut diet) or one serving of a cereal containing Canola oil (cereal diet). There were no significant differences in the lipids, lipoproteins, plasma fatty acids or other variables between the two diets at the end of the study. Total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower on both experimental diets than at baseline, 0.51 mmol/L and 0.40 mmol/L (p<0.001, p<0.01), respectively on the nut diet and 0.42 mmol/L and 0.37 mmol/L (p<0.001, p<0.01), respectively on the cereal diet.
A 30 g serving of nuts, or a serving of a Canola oil enriched cereal with a similar fatty acid composition reduced total and LDL cholesterol to a similar extent when consumed as part of a lipid lowering diet. Results suggest that foods with a similar fatty acid composition to nuts can produce comparable decreases in lipoprotein mediated cardiovascular risk.

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    • "Brazil nut has a high content of selenium and could, therefore, have cardioprotective effects. In addition, different types of nuts such as peanuts, almonds, walnuts, and macadamia nuts, among others, have been shown to modulate the lipid profile in both unhealthy as well as healthy subjects [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] [36]. This beneficial effect has been attributed to the high levels of MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in nuts [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. This study investigates the effects of Brazil nut ingestion on serum lipid profile in healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Each subject was tested 4 times in a randomized crossover in relation to the ingestion of different serving sizes of the Brazil nut: 0, 5, 20, or 50 g. At each treatment point, peripheral blood was drawn before and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours and 5 and 30 days. Blood samples were tested for total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c, resp.), triglycerides, selenium, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, albumin, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, gamma GT, urea, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Results. A significant increase of the plasma selenium levels was observed at 6 hours within the groups receiving the nuts. Serum LDL-c was significantly lower, whereas HDL-c was significantly higher 9 hours after the ingestion of 20 or 50 g of nuts. The biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function were not modified by ingestion of nuts. Conclusions. This study shows that the ingestion of a single serving of Brazil nut can acutely improve the serum lipid profile of healthy volunteers.
    Journal of nutrition and metabolism 06/2013; 2013:653185. DOI:10.1155/2013/653185
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    • "Chisholm et al. [50] reported that nut consumption has a TClowering effect and decreases the risk of lipoprotein-mediated cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Previous studies have consistently showed an association between nut consumption and a lower risk of CVD [13] [14] [17] [51] and an improvement in serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles [15] [17] [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts.
    Nutrition 11/2012; 28(11-12):1089-97. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.004 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Changes in blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between the four groups. Most previous literature suggests that regular nut consumption in hypercholesterolemic individuals results in significant reductions in TC and LDL-C [21, 25, 60–64] with some showing increases in HDL-C [25, 62, 63] whilst others do not [21, 60, 61, 64]. It is likely that we did not observe an improvement in blood lipoproteins with regular nut consumption due to the low baseline TC (4.8 mmol/L) and LDL-C (2.9 mmol/L) and relatively high HDL-C (1.3 mmol/L) concentrations of this study population. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.
    Journal of nutrition and metabolism 08/2011; 2011(2090-0724):357350. DOI:10.1155/2011/357350
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