Breast cancer metastasis: markers and models.

Division of Experimental Therapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Nature reviews. Cancer (Impact Factor: 37.91). 09/2005; 5(8):591-602. DOI: 10.1038/nrc1670
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Breast cancer starts as a local disease, but it can metastasize to the lymph nodes and distant organs. At primary diagnosis, prognostic markers are used to assess whether the transition to systemic disease is likely to have occurred. The prevailing model of metastasis reflects this view--it suggests that metastatic capacity is a late, acquired event in tumorigenesis. Others have proposed the idea that breast cancer is intrinsically a systemic disease. New molecular technologies, such as DNA microarrays, support the idea that metastatic capacity might be an inherent feature of breast tumours. These data have important implications for prognosis prediction and our understanding of metastasis.

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    Ali Shahriari Ahmadi, Leila Mahdipour, Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women and is the leading cause of death through middle-aged women. Despite the high frequency of breast cancer among Iranian women, the epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer among Iranian patients are yet unknown. Herein, we investigate epidemiology, pathology and histochemistry features in women with breast cancer in Iran. Materials and Methods: Between of 2002 to 2012, 546 patients with breast cancer, who were referred to Rasool-Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran were studied. They were surveyed for age, size of tumor, family history of disease, laterality, type of pathology, grade, stage, tumor markers and metastasis. Results: The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 46.8±11 years. Size of tumor in 113 patients (20.7%) was 0.1-2 cm, 349 patients (63.9%) between 2.1-5 cm and 84 patients (15.4%) >5 cm. Forty-seven patients (8.6%), 382 patients (70%) and 117 patients (21.4%) had grade I, grade II and grade III, respectively. 185 patients (33.9%) had metastasis (35 patients at diagnosis and 150 patients in time of treatment) to other organs. 538 patients (98.5%) didn't have family history of ovarian cancer and also 501 patients (91.8%) didn't have family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: The mean age at diagnosis of BC in Iran is around 46 to 49 years. Tumor size in our study is lower than many studies. The organ as site of the most metastases was the lung in our patients, while in other studies it is the bone.
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be detected in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with early and metastatic disease. Recent data suggest that immune pathologic characteristics between the primary tumor, metastatic colonies and CTCs are discordant and that CTCs possess an independent phenotype that is associated with prognosis and treatment efficacy. Large scale gene expression analysis has provided the possibility to stratify breast cancer according to the gene expression fingerprint of primary tumor tissue into five intrinsic molecular subtypes which can be associated with different clinical outcome. As a consequence of the different prognostic power of primary tumors' characteristics and CTCs several groups have started to investigate if CTCs might be disseminated differentially within these breast cancer subtypes. They determined the CTC number in immunohistochemical subtypes to validate if CTCs may provide differential and more specific prognostic information within each subtype. This review provides an overview of the outcome of some recently published data gathered from early and metastatic breast cancer.
    Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde 04/2015; 75(03):232-237. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1545788 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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