Social defeat: risk factor for schizophrenia? Br J Psychiatry

Utrecht University, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 09/2005; 187:101-2. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.187.2.101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hypothesis that chronic and long-term experience of 'social defeat' may increase the risk for schizophrenia is proposed. This increased risk may result from sensitisation of the mesolimbic dopamine system and/or increased baseline activity of this system. Data supporting the social defeat hypothesis are presented.

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    • "This model suggested that PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance, arousal, and re-experiencing) could have both direct effects on psychosis symptoms and indirect effects through traumatic sequelae such as substance abuse, re-traumatization, and interpersonal difficulties. Other models have attempted to explain these trauma–psychosis associations (Bentall & Fernyhough, 2008; Selten & Cantor-Graae, 2005). Cognitive models suggest that there may be numerous casual routes to the development and maintenance of psychotic symptoms such as adverse experiences, social marginalization, and the experience of childhood trauma (Garety, Kuipers, Fowler, Freeman, & Bebbington, 2001; Morrison, 2001; Morrison et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Previous research has identified an association between traumatic experiences and psychotic symptoms. Few studies, however, have explored the underlying mechanisms and contingent nature of these associations in an integrated model. This study aimed to test a moderated mediation model of negative childhood experiences, associated cognitive processes, and psychotic experiences within a context of adolescent loneliness.DesignCross-sectional survey.MethodsA total of 785 Northern Irish secondary school adolescents completed the survey. A moderated mediation model was specified and tested.ResultsChildhood experiences of threat and subordination were directly associated with psychotic experiences. Analyses indicated that peer victimization was a mediator of this effect and that loneliness moderated this mediated effect.ConclusionA new model is proposed to provide an alternative framework for assessing the association between trauma and psychotic experience in adolescence that recognizes loneliness as a significant contextual moderator that can potentially strengthen the trauma–psychosis relationship.Practitioner pointsModerated mediation analyses poses an alternative framework to the understanding of trauma–psychosis associationsAdolescent loneliness is a vulnerability factor within this associationData are based on a Northern Irish sample with relatively low levels of lonelinessCross-sectional data cannot explore the developmental course of these experiences in adolescence.
    03/2015; 54(3). DOI:10.1111/bjc.12077
    • "Estos datos proporcionan la evidencia más convincente del papel de los factores socioeconómicos en la etiología de la esquizofrenia Selten y Cantor - Graae 57 ( 2005 ) Analizar la afectación del estrés crónico y el desarrollo social en el aumento de factores de riesgo en la esquizofrenia Revisión Se propone la hipótesis de que la experiencia social crónica puede aumentar el riesgo al desarrollo de esquizofrenia . Este aumento de riesgo puede resultar de la sensibilización del sistema mesolímbico de la dopamina y / o el aumento de la actividad basal de este sistema Cantor - Graae y Selten 58 ( 2005 ) Analizar y revisar la migración como factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de la esquizofrenia Revisión entre los a ˜ nos 1977 y 2003 El riesgo relativo de medias ponderadas para el desarrollo de la esquizofrenia entre los inmigrantes de primera generación ( 40 tamã nos del efecto ) fue de 2 , 7 ( IC 95% 2 , 3 - 3 , 2 ) . Un análisis independiente realizado por inmigrantes de segunda generación ( 7 tamã nos del efecto ) produjo un riesgo relativo de 4 , 5 ( IC 95% 1 , 5 - 13 , 1 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews and discusses the published information on stressful life events and their influence on the onset of a first psychotic episode. The aim is to update and promote further investigation into these events in the context of a stress-vulnerability model. Milestone studies that referred to the key thematic stressful life events, such as adolescence, coping, resilience, and ethnic differences. A search was conducted using PsycINFO, MEDLINE and PSICODOC between 1980 and 2013 using the following terms: Stressful life events, adolescence, coping, resilience, schizophrenia, stress, first psychotic episode, and vulnerability. A total of 289 studies were found, of which 59 were selected for review. The integrated assessment of stressful life events, along with other individual and contextual variables, allow an approach for an early detection and a prevention tool. The results suggest the need for a multiple and integrated approach, since there are several factors that are involved in the whole network which forms a first psychotic episode.
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    • "Psychosis, and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, is characterized by the presence of hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). It has become clear in recent years that the marked heterogeneity in the rates of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders across population groups [1] can be partly explained by urban birth and upbringing, migration, ethnicity, and what Cantor-Graae and Selten have termed “social defeat” [2, 3]. A particularly important recent body of research is the MRC AESOP study that demonstrated a twentyfold rate increase in the incidence of psychosis in London, compared with Nottingham and Bristol, and the very highest rates being within the Black and ethnic minority groups [4–8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychotic disorders carry social and economic costs for sufferers and society. Recent evidence highlights the risk posed by urban upbringing and social deprivation in the genesis of paranoia and psychosis. Evidence based psychological interventions are often not offered because of a lack of therapists. Virtual reality (VR) environments have been used to treat mental health problems. VR may be a way of understanding the aetiological processes in psychosis and increasing psychotherapeutic resources for its treatment. We developed a high-fidelity virtual reality scenario of an urban street scene to test the hypothesis that virtual urban exposure is able to generate paranoia to a comparable or greater extent than scenarios using indoor scenes. Participants (n = 32) entered the VR scenario for four minutes, after which time their degree of paranoid ideation was assessed. We demonstrated that the virtual reality scenario was able to elicit paranoia in a nonclinical, healthy group and that an urban scene was more likely to lead to higher levels of paranoia than a virtual indoor environment. We suggest that this study offers evidence to support the role of exposure to factors in the urban environment in the genesis and maintenance of psychotic experiences and symptoms. The realistic high-fidelity street scene scenario may offer a useful tool for therapists.
    12/2013; 2013(1, suupplement 1, article 63):538185. DOI:10.1155/2013/538185
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