Article

Thymocyte and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulation changes in piglets following in utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

Department of Farm Animal Health and Resource Management, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 27606, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 11/2002; 302(2):363-72. DOI: 10.1006/viro.2002.1650
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are born severely immunocompromised. In this article we more closely examine the effects of in utero PRRSV infection on circulating and thymic T cell populations. Numbers of CD4+, CD8+, and dual-positive lymphocytes were quantitated in circulation and in the thymus during the 2 weeks following birth. At birth we found that the number of circulating lymphocytes was suppressed by 60%. Lymphocyte numbers were also suppressed by 42% at day 7, but by day 14 the number of lymphocytes had rebounded and was actually 47% greater than controls. At birth and day 7, a drop in the number of CD4+ cells could partially explain the suppression we observed, while the rebound in total lymphocyte numbers seen at day 14 was due to a nearly fourfold increase in the number of circulating CD8+ cells. As a result, the normal CD4+:CD8+ ratio of between 1.4 and 2.2 for neonatal pigs was reduced to 0.1-0.5. The thymuses of infected piglets were found to be 50% smaller than those of control pigs and were characterized by cortical involution and severe cortical depletion of thymocytes. Analysis of the population of thymocytes revealed that double-positive thymocytes were suppressed to a greater degree than either single positive subpopulation. In addition, we show that the number of thymocytes undergoing apoptosis was increased twofold in piglets infected with PRRSV. Taken together, these results help explain the dramatic immunosuppression observed in neonatal animals infected in utero with PRRSV.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
60 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have demonstrated that piglets infected with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) may develop significant thymus atrophy, which related to thymocytes apoptosis. However, apart from that detected in the thymus, there are no reports describing cell apoptosis induced by HP-PRRSV infection. In this study, we analyzed comparatively the pathological changes, cell apoptosis and viral load in peripheral immune organs including tonsil, inguinal lymph nodes (ILNs) and spleen and lungs following experimental infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV HuN4 and classical PRRSV CH-1a. HP-PRRSV HuN4 exhibited much stronger cell tropism than CH-1a in immune organs and lungs of piglets. HuN4 infection led to the serious injuries in tonsils, ILNs, spleens and lungs, especially apoptosis in these organs was significant. HuN4 infection induced severe lesions (gross pathology, histopathology and cell apoptosis) in the peripheral immune organs and lungs of infected piglets. Large numbers of apoptotic cells in immune organs and lung induced by HuN4 may play a role in the pathogenesis of the HP-PRRS and the distinct injuries caused by HuN4 infection may be associated with the high mortality rate of HP-PRRS in pigs.
    Virology Journal 01/2014; 11(1):2. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an immunosuppressive disease that is characterized by respiratory distress and poor growth in piglets and by severe reproductive failure in sows. PRRS was first recognized in the 1990s in Europe and the United States. In 2006, highly pathogenic (HP)-PRRS caused enormous economic losses in China. Our previous studies demonstrated that the HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) induced the apoptosis of numerous thymocytes in infected piglets, leading to severe thymus atrophy. To further identify the subset of apoptotic cells in thymus of HP-PRRSV-infected piglets, different cell types, apoptotic cells, and HP-PRRSV were marked with the corresponding markers. Results of the colocalization demonstrated that the apoptotic cells were not infected by HP-PRRSV, and most of them were CD3(+) T cells. No apoptosis was observed in the epithelial cells, and only few CD14(+) cells were apoptotic. HP-PRRSV was only found in CD14(+) cells, and epithelial cells and CD3(+) cells were not infected by HP-PRRSV. This is the first study to report the apoptotic and infected cells in the thymuses of HP-PRRSV-infected piglets.
    Virus Research 04/2014; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) is mainly expressed on CD4(+) T cells, which plays an important role in immune response. The aim of this study was to detect the association between polymorphisms of the CD4 gene and T lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs, and to investigate the effects of genetic variation on the CD4 gene expression level in immune tissues. Five missense mutations in the CD4 gene were identified using DNA pooling sequencing assays, and two main haplotypes (CCTCC and AGCTG) in strong linkage disequilibrium (with frequencies of 50.26% and 46.34%, respectively) were detected in the population of Large White pigs. Our results indicated that the five SNPs and the two haplotypes were significantly associated with the proportions of CD4(-)CD8(-), CD4(+)CD8(+), CD4(+)CD8(-), CD4(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) in peripheral blood (p<0.05). Gene expression analysis showed the mRNA level of the CD4 gene in thymus was significantly higher than that in lymph node and spleen (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between animals with CCTCC/CCTCC genotype and animals with AGCTG/AGCTG genotype in the three immune tissues (p>0.05). These results indicate that the CD4 gene may influence T lymphocyte subpopulations and can be considered as a candidate gene affecting immunity in pigs.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 04/2013; 26(4):463-9. · 0.56 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
29 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014