Novel RAG1 Mutation in a Case of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
ABSTRACT The recombination activating enzymes RAG1 and RAG2 are essential to the process of V(D)J rearrangement in B and T cells and thus to the development of normal immune function. Mutations in RAG1 or RAG2 can lead to a spectrum of disorders, ranging from typical (B-)(T-) severe combined immunodeficiency to Omenn's syndrome. We present a unique presentation of RAG1 deficiency.
We report on a 6-month-old girl who presented with severe respiratory distress, which continued to progress despite antibiotic therapy but seemed to respond to treatment with corticosteroids. The patient exhibited no erythroderma or eosinophilia, and her lymphoid organs were not enlarged.
Investigation of the immune system showed normal numbers of CD3+ T cells, which expressed either CD4 or CD8. Subsequent analysis of the T-cell receptor demonstrated that nearly all CD3+ T cells were clonal; one clone expressed CD4, whereas the other expressed CD8. The extremely restricted T-cell repertoire and the lack of circulating B cells prompted analysis of the RAG1 gene, which revealed a novel homozygous thymine to cytosine substitution at nucleotide position 2686.
This case underscores the importance of more extensive evaluation of the immune system even when widely available, standard, flow cytometric analysis shows normal numbers of T cells that express CD4 or CD8, especially in the absence of circulating B cells.
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ABSTRACT: Inherited immune deficiencies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can be either isolated, with the immune defect being the exclusive manifestation, or associated with other abnormalities. We report on two sisters, born to consanguineous parents of Sri-Lankan descent, who presented in infancy with immunodeficiency, gonadal dysgenesis, and fatal lung fibrosis. Immune studies demonstrated combined humoral and cellular abnormalities including reduced immunoglobulin production, an absence of lymphoid tissue, markedly reduced T-lymphocyte numbers and function and reduced newly thymus-derived T-cells. Both infants succumbed to rapidly progressive lung fibrosis. Autopsy showed dysgenetic gonads bearing no discernible oocytes. In both, karyotypes were normal female (46,XX). Comparative genome hybridization and analysis of genes known to be associated with severe immune defects in infancy or gonadal dysgenesis showed no abnormality. The distinct findings in these two sisters have not been reported before and thus suggest a hitherto unknown autosomal recessive condition that includes immune dysfunction, gonadal dysgenesis, and pulmonary fibrosis.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 01/2008; 146A(1):8-14. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32014 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T-cell immunodeficiency may pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, especially when the basic T-cell immune workup is not sufficiently informative. An intensive assessment of thymus capabilities that involves either measuring the recent thymic emigrant cells or analyzing the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is often required to estimate the severity and nature of the immune disorder. A comprehensive T-cell immune workup, including TCR excision circles (TRECs) and TCR repertoire analyses, was performed in three patients with various degrees of severity of T-cell immunodeficiency. All three patients had normal peripheral CD3+ T lymphocytes. TCR repertoire analysis revealed oligoclonal (patient 1), restricted (patient 2), and near-normal (patient 3) patterns. TREC quantification was significantly reduced in patients 1 and 2 but normal in patient 3. Based on clinical features at presentation and at follow-up, and supported by the results of immunologic studies, patients 1 and 2 were diagnosed as having significant T-cell immunodeficiency and patient 3 as having T-cell immunocompetence. Assessment of thymus capabilities by TRECs and TCR repertoire analyses is helpful in diagnosing patients with T-cell immunodeficiency and should be part of the evaluation of every patient suspected of having that condition.Pediatric Research 10/2009; 67(2):211-6. DOI:10.1203/PDR.0b013e3181c6e554 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Omenn syndrome is a variant of severe combined immunodeficiency disease, which most prominently presents with erythroderma, eosinophilia, and susceptibility to various pathogens. Mutations in the nucleases of recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1/RAG2) or Artemis were found in some, but not all, patients with Omenn syndrome. We identified 2 patients who presented with clinical features consistent with Omenn syndrome but had no mutations in RAG or Artemis. Both patients also had cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). We sought to define the molecular basis and characterize the features of severe combined immunodeficiency and Omenn syndrome in these patients. We have studied humoral and cellular immunity using standard assays. T-cell repertoire was investigated by quantitating Vbeta families. The RNase mitochondrial RNA processing (RMRP) RNA gene was sequenced by using standard techniques. Sequence analysis of the RMRP RNA gene showed that each patient had an insertion-duplication on one allele and a point mutation on the other allele. These point mutations were novel, and they might be related to the unusual presentation of Omenn syndrome in addition to CHH in these patients. Indeed, analysis of the thymus showed residual mature T lymphocytes. This leaky thymus might be responsible for the skewed release of some T-cell clones into the circulation, which might trigger the phenotype of Omenn syndrome. We have demonstrated that mutations in the RMRP RNA gene might be associated with Omenn syndrome. This discovery will aid clinicians in the early recognition and treatment of CHH-associated Omenn syndrome.Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 05/2006; 117(4):897-903. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.01.003 · 11.25 Impact Factor