Migraine: New molecular mechanisms
ABSTRACT Migraine is an episodic headache disorder affecting more than 10% of the general population. Migraine arises from a primary brain dysfunction that leads to activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system. A major incompletely understood issue in the neurobiology of migraine concerns the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie the primary brain dysfunction and lead to activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system, thus generating and maintaining migraine pain. Here the author reviews recent discoveries that have advanced our understanding of these mechanisms toward a unifying pathophysiological hypothesis, in which cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon underlying migraine aura, assumes a key role. In particular, the author discusses the main recent findings in the genetics and neurobiology of familial hemiplegic migraine and the insights they provide into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that may lead to the increased susceptibility of CSD in migraineurs.
SourceAvailable from: Katarzyna Roszek[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Etiopathogenesis of migraine involves different structures of the central nervous system: the trigeminal nerve with nuclei located in the brain stem, vascular system, and the cerebral cortex as well as diverse mechanisms and pathological processes. The multidirectional action of purines in different cell types (blood vessels, neurons, and satellite glial cells) and through different types of purinergic receptors contributes to the etiopathogenesis of migraine pain. Adenosine triphos-phate (ATP) and its derivatives are involved in initiation and propagation of migrenogenic signals in several ways: they participate in vasomotor mechanism, cortical spreading depression , and in fast transmission or cross-excitation based on the satellite glial cells in trigeminal ganglion. Contribution of purinergic signaling in the conduction of pain is realized through the activation of P1 and P2 receptors expressed widely in the central nervous system: on the neurons and glial cells as well as on the smooth muscles and endothelium in the vascular system. Therefore, the purinergic receptors can be an excellent target for pharmacologists constructing new antimigraine therapeutics. Moreover, the mechanisms facilitating ATP and adenosine degradation may prevent vasodila-tation and thus avoid a secondary central sensitization during a migraine attack. Thus, agonists and antagonists of P receptors as well as ecto-enzymes metabolizing nucleotides/nucleosides could gain the growing attention as therapeutic agents.Purinergic Signalling 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11302-015-9453-8 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels play a key role in triggering neurotransmitter release and mediating synaptic transmission. Familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 (FHM-1) is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the α1A pore-forming subunit of CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels. We used knock-in (KI) transgenic mice harbouring the pathogenic FHM-1 mutation R192Q to study inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the principle neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory brainstem. We tested if the R192Q FHM-1 mutation differentially affects excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, disturbing the normal balance between excitation and inhibition in this nucleus. Whole cell patch-clamp was used to measure neurotransmitter elicited excitatory (EPSCs) and inhibitory (IPSCs) postsynaptic currents in wild-type (WT) and R192Q KI mice. Our results showed that the FHM-1 mutation in CaV2.1 channels has multiple effects. Evoked EPSC amplitudes were smaller whereas evoked and miniature IPSC amplitudes were larger in R192Q KI compared to WT mice. In addition, in R192Q KI mice, the release probability was enhanced compared to WT, at both inhibitory (0.53 ± 0.02 vs. 0.44 ± 0.01, P = 2.10−5, Student's t-test) and excitatory synapses (0.60 ± 0.03 vs. 0.45 ± 0.02, P = 4 10−6, Student's t-test). Vesicle pool size was diminished in R192Q KI mice compared to WT mice (68 ± 6 vs 91 ± 7, P = 0.008, inhibitory; 104 ± 13 vs 335 ± 30, P = 10−6, excitatory, Student's t-test). R192Q KI mice present enhanced short-term plasticity. Repetitive stimulation of the afferent axons caused short-term depression (STD) of E/IPSCs that recovered significantly faster in R192Q KI mice compared to WT. This supports the hypothesis of a gain-of-function of the CaV2.1 channels in R192Q KI mice, which alters the balance of excitatory/inhibitory inputs and could also have implications in the altered cortical excitability responsible for FHM pathology.Hearing Research 12/2014; 319. DOI:10.1016/j.heares.2014.11.006 · 2.85 Impact Factor
The Open Pain Journal 05/2010; 3(2):3-13. DOI:10.2174/1876386301003020003