Mediastinal lymph node dissection for non-small cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT The role of systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection in the staging and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the subject of ongoing debate. Surgical practice varies from simple visual inspection of the unopened mediastinum to radical, systematic lymphadenectomy of all accessible lymph node levels. As the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes is a precondition for accurate intraoperative staging of NSCLC we advocate for complete interlobar, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenectomy as compartment dissections in patients with NSCLC. The therapeutic effect of extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy, however, remains controversial. In this review we discuss the role of mediastinal lymph node dissection in the management of NSCLC.Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
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ABSTRACT: Oncologic surgery and pTNM staging require systemic removal of the locoregional lymphnodes. While the optimal extent and therapeutical and/or prognostic value of the lymphadenectomy/sampling are debated organ by organ and (sub)speciality by (sub)speciality, relevance of the lymphnode sytem-tumor concept itself is beyond doubt. Loss of information and existence of traps on the "surgical field-microscope" pathway is an international phenomenon, calling for solution. An integrated sterile and disposable lymphnode tray system is presented here for applications in the different fields of cancer surgery of the upper GI tract, retroperitoneum (gynecology, urology) and ear-nose-throat surgery.Magyar Sebészet (Hungarian Journal of Surgery) 02/2011; 64(1):6-11.
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ABSTRACT: The role of lymphadenectomy as an adjunct of standard excision for treatment of cancer is highly debated and controversial. Standard practice for treatment of solid tumors is resection with regional lymphadenectomy. This surgical concept assumes that cancers grow and spread in an orderly manner, from primary cancer to regional lymph nodes and finally to vital organs. We reviewed randomized trials, published a description of lymphatic anatomy and physiology, and presented data that disputed the role of lymphadenectomy as standard practice. The present review updates the literature and reiterates the concept that lymphadenectomy does not increase survival in the surgical treatment of solid tumors. We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) for prospective randomized trials and nonrandomized reports, as well as retrospective studies addressing the role of lymphadenectomy in cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, pancreas, breast, and skin (melanoma) reported between 2000 and 2006. This extensive review demonstrates that there are few prospective randomized trials assessing patient survival with solid tumors that contrast resection with or without lymphadenectomy. However, there was at least one, and for some cancers more than one, prospective randomized trial for each organ site studied, and the data demonstrate no statistically significant difference in overall survival of patients treated with or without lymphadenectomy. Most nonrandomized and retrospective studies, with a few exceptions, support the conclusions of randomized trials; lymphadenectomy does not improve overall survival in solid tumors. Overall survival is primarily a function of the biological nature of the primary tumor, as evidenced by lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and other prognostic features. This extensive literature review of recent reports indicates that lymphadenectomy does not improve overall survival. Lymph node resection should be conceived in terms of staging, prognosis, and regional control only.Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2007; 14(9):2443-62. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stage I and II nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should be resected, but there is mounting evidence for the use of preoperative induction and postoperative adjuvant therapy in stages IB and II, as being able to prolong life. Some patients in stage IIIA should undergo induction therapy, and then have restaging of the mediastinum by CT/PET or redo mediastinoscopy before considering resection. Stages IIIB and IV are nonsurgical, except very selected cases. Reflections are made regarding the control of cigarette smoking, the difficult access of patients from developing countries to the recent costly medical, pharmacological and technical advances; reflections are also made related to some ethical issues regarding medical and surgical treatment of NSCLC.Revista del Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias 06/2006; 19(2):143-147.
EXTENDED MEDIASTINAL NODE
DISSECTION FOR NON-SMALL CELL
The most important factor influencing survival of surgical
patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is
the presence or absence of lymph node involvement.
Considerable controversy still exists regarding surgical
treatment for patients with mediastinal lymph node
In 1960, Cahan  described the surgical procedure
for "radical lobectomy" in which one or two lobes were
excised in a block dissection of regional, i.e. hilar and
mediastinal lymph nodes. Our procedures have been
more extensive than Cahan's procedures. Routine
systematic dissection of the mediastinal lymph nodes
was performed in every case even if the preoperative
evaluation was N0 or N1, in accordance with the lymph
node map proposed by the Japan Lung Cancer Society
SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR MEDICSTINAL
To improve the survival of N2 patients, we modified the
mode of lymph node dissection over the past 25 years
[4-9]. Before 1980, the mode of lymph node dissection
was less extensive compared with that of since 1981.
Since 1981, we have performed systematic and
extensive lymph node dissection in every curable case
of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), even if the
preoperative evaluation was N0 or N1.
On the right side, the mediastinal pleura was
longitudinally incised along the trachea and esophagus
from the apex to the base of the right hemi-thorax. For
node dissection in the superior mediastinum, the azygos
vein was cut to mobilize the trachea, esophagus, and
superior vena cava. All of the accessible lymph nodes
in the superior mediastinum, i.e. the superior mediastinal
(#1), para-tracheal (#2), pretracheal (#3), retrotracheal
(#3p), and tracheobronchial angle (#4) nodes, were
removed with the surrounding fat pad. The node anterior
to the superior vena cava (#3a) was also routinely
removed, including thymic tissue. By these procedures
all of the lymph nodes and fat pad located around the
subclavian artery, trachea, right main bronchus,
ascending aortic arch, superior vena cava, and upper
thoracic esophagus could be completely removed.
For node dissection in the inferior mediastinum, the
incised posterior mediastinal pleura was reflected and
the pulmonary ligament was cut to expose the tracheal
bifurcation, both main stem bronchi, the pericardium,
and the lower thoracic esophagus. All of the lymph nodes
in this compartment, i.e. subcarinal (#7), paraesophageal
(#8), and pulmonary ligament (#9) and also contralateral
hilar (#10) and paraesophageal (#8) nodes were
dissected out with their surrounding fat pad.
On the left side, lymph node dissection in the inferior
mediastinum was performed similarly to that on the
right side. However, in the superior mediastinum, there
are great anatomical limitations on node dissection,
which is in marked contrast to the right side. This is
mainly due to obstruction of the surgical field by the
aortic arch. As a routine procedure in left thoracotomy,
the mediastinal pleura was incised just beneath the
aortic arch and the subaortic(#5), paraaortic (#6), #7
and #8 nodes are removed.
In addition to the routine dissection method, two kinds
of adjunctive procedures ((a) mobilization of aorta and
(b) median sternotomy) have been performed for more
extensive nodal dissection in the upper mediastinum.
Since 1981, the aortic arch and part of the descending
aorta are routinely mobilized by cutting Botallo's ligament
and a few intercostal arteries to allow more extensive
removal of the superior mediastinal nodes, i.e. #3, 3a,
3p and 4 nodes.
In addition to division of the Botallo's ligament, since
1986, the operative procedure was modified when left-
sided N2 lung cancer was diagnosed by preoperative
CT scanning or discovered at thoracotomy. For more
complete nodal dissection, median sternotomy was
performed after procedures in the left hemithorax had
been completed using the left postero-lateral approach.
By this procedure, #1, 2, 3, 3a, 4, and 7 nodes in the
ipsilateral side and also mediastinal and hilar lymph
nodes in the contralateral side could be completely
dissected [8,9]. By employing these dissection methods,
improved survival of left N2 patients was noted on
comparison with that undergoing routine nodal
Hata et al. (10) reported excellent results by routine
use of median sternotomy for left-side lung cancer in
* Department of Chest Surgery, Kanazawa Medical
University, Ishikawa, JAPAN.
Solunum 3, Özel Sayı 2:180-182, 2001
TUMOR DIAMETER AND INCIDENCE OF IYMPH
In Table I, incidences of lymph node metastasis in
relation to the size of the primary tumor are shown in
1255 patients with measurable tumor size. Overall,
the incidence of N0, N1, N2 and N3 diseases were
61.1%, 11.4%, 23.5%, and 4.1%, respectively. The
incidence of N2 disease increased as tumor size
increased. Fifteen percent of patients having 11 to
20mm tumor size have N2/N3 diseases. When the tumor
size increases to a range of 21 to 30mm, the incidence
increases to 25%. If the tumor measures more than
30mm, more than 30% demonstrate N2 disease.
Table I: Tumor size and frequency of lymph node
metastases in NSCLC
METASTATIC SPREAD OF N2 DISEASE
All dissected lymph nodes were sent for pathological
examination. In this study, there were some patients
with multiple metastatic lymph nodes within a single
level, but such nodes were defined as one metastatic
focus in this study. Figure 1 shows the distribution of
mediastinal lymph node metastases in patients, who
underwent complete dissection of the mediastinal lymph
node. Open circles represent single-level metastases,
and solid circles multi-level metastases. Upper lobe
lesions involved more metastatic levels than lower level
lesions. Common metastatic levels were #7, 4, 3, 2,
In patients with multi-level metastasis most of the
metastases were noted in the regional lymph nodes,
i.e. upper lobe lesion mostly involved the upper
mediastinal nodes and lower lobe lesion mostly involved
those in the lower mediastinum. However, in cases of
right lower lobe tumors and left lower lobe tumors,
metastases to the superior mediastinum (nonregional
mediastinum) were observed more frequently than
metastases of upper lobe tumors to the inferior
Figure I: Metastatic spread of N2 disease in relation to
the location of the primary tumor.
RLL: right lower lobe. RML: right middlle lobe. RUL: right upper lobe. LUL: left
upper lobe. LLL: Left lower lobe
RATIONALE FOR EXTENSIVE IYMPH NODE
As indicated above, nodal spread of metastasis in
the mediastinum is frequently noted and extensively
scattered. Therefore, during surgery, extensive
mediastinal node dissection should be performed.
In addition, further rationale for extensive mediastinal
node dissection are as follows: Firstly, even T1
lesion may induce high frequency of N2 disease as
shown in Table I. Secondly, the accuracy of CT
scan in demonstrating N2 disease is not very high.
We did not use mediastinoscopy as a routine
preoperative diagnostic procedure, and preoperative
staging were mainly done by CT scan. The diagnostic
rate of N2 disease were sensitivity; 67%, specificity;
81% and accuracy; 77%. Thirdly, there is no method
of detecting latent (microscopic) metastasis by gross
intraoperative findings. Fourthly, there are many
preoperatively unproven (latent) N2 disease detected
after postsurgical examination of the resected
specimens. Among the 659 patients who were
evaluated as N0 by preoperative evaluation, 89
patients (13.5%) had pN2 disease verified by
postoperative pathological examination.
Furthermore, among the 269 patients with pN2
disease, 40% were diagnosed as cN0 (n=89) or cN1
RLLRML RUL LUL LLL
RESULTS OF SURGERY
Since 1988, we have done radical extensive lymph
node dissection in 1517 cases as a routine
procedure. The mortality mortality within 30 days
after operation were noted in 19 patients, constituting
mortality rate of 1.2%. As a postoperative
complication, 5 patients suffered from postoperative
chylothorax with no mortality.
There were 218 stage IIIA-N2 patients underwent
resection with 2 (0.9%) operative mortality. Their
operative radicality was 152 (70%) complete
resection and 66 with incomplete resection. The 5-
year survival rate of patients who underwent
complete resection was 30%, whereas that of the
incompltely resected cases were 5%. In total, the
5-year survival rate of the resected N2 patients was
23%. The survival rate of the completely resected
pN2 patients who were evaluated as N0-1
preoperatively showed the 5-year survival rate of
36%, showing significantly better survival than that
of the cN2 patients which was 27%. There was a
significant difference between the two groups.
When prognostic factors affecting the survivals of
patients with N2 disease were analysed, favourable
factors were complete resection, one-level
metastasis, preoperatively unproven N2 (cN0-1),
T1-2N2M0, intranodal microscooic metastasis,
without #7 nodal involvement and primary tumor
less than 20mm. On the other hand, unfavourable
factors were incomplete resection, multi-level
metastases, radiologically evident N2 disease, T3-
4N2 disease, extranodal expansion, number, #7
node metastases, or tumor more than 50 mm.
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Extended mediastinal node dissection for non-small cell lung cancer