Mediastinal lymph node dissection for non-small cell lung cancer.
ABSTRACT The role of systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection in the staging and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the subject of ongoing debate. Surgical practice varies from simple visual inspection of the unopened mediastinum to radical, systematic lymphadenectomy of all accessible lymph node levels. As the evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes is a precondition for accurate intraoperative staging of NSCLC we advocate for complete interlobar, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenectomy as compartment dissections in patients with NSCLC. The therapeutic effect of extensive mediastinal lymphadenectomy, however, remains controversial. In this review we discuss the role of mediastinal lymph node dissection in the management of NSCLC.Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of lymphadenectomy as an adjunct of standard excision for treatment of cancer is highly debated and controversial. Standard practice for treatment of solid tumors is resection with regional lymphadenectomy. This surgical concept assumes that cancers grow and spread in an orderly manner, from primary cancer to regional lymph nodes and finally to vital organs. We reviewed randomized trials, published a description of lymphatic anatomy and physiology, and presented data that disputed the role of lymphadenectomy as standard practice. The present review updates the literature and reiterates the concept that lymphadenectomy does not increase survival in the surgical treatment of solid tumors. We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) for prospective randomized trials and nonrandomized reports, as well as retrospective studies addressing the role of lymphadenectomy in cancers of the esophagus, lung, stomach, pancreas, breast, and skin (melanoma) reported between 2000 and 2006. This extensive review demonstrates that there are few prospective randomized trials assessing patient survival with solid tumors that contrast resection with or without lymphadenectomy. However, there was at least one, and for some cancers more than one, prospective randomized trial for each organ site studied, and the data demonstrate no statistically significant difference in overall survival of patients treated with or without lymphadenectomy. Most nonrandomized and retrospective studies, with a few exceptions, support the conclusions of randomized trials; lymphadenectomy does not improve overall survival in solid tumors. Overall survival is primarily a function of the biological nature of the primary tumor, as evidenced by lymphovascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and other prognostic features. This extensive literature review of recent reports indicates that lymphadenectomy does not improve overall survival. Lymph node resection should be conceived in terms of staging, prognosis, and regional control only.Annals of Surgical Oncology 10/2007; 14(9):2443-62. · 4.12 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Despite technological, therapeutic, and scientific advances, most patients present with incurable disease and a poor chance of long-term survival. For those with potentially curable disease, lung cancer staging greatly influences therapeutic decisions. Therefore, surgical pathologists determine many facets of lung cancer patient care. To present the current lung cancer staging system and examine the importance of mediastinal lymph node sampling, and also to discuss particularly confusing and/or challenging areas in lung cancer staging, including assessment of visceral pleura invasion, bronchial and carinal involvement, and the staging of synchronous carcinomas. Published current and prior staging manuals from the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the International Union Against Cancer as well as selected articles pertaining to lung cancer staging and diagnosis accessible through PubMed (National Library of Medicine) form the basis of this review. Proper lung cancer staging requires more than a superficial appreciation of the staging system. Clinically relevant specimen gross examination and histologic review depend on a thorough understanding of the staging guidelines. Common sense is also required when one is confronted with a tumor specimen that defies easy assignment to the TNM staging system.Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 08/2007; 131(7):1016-26. · 2.78 Impact Factor