Neuropsychiatric syndromes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis.
ABSTRACT The cause of neurologic (N) and psychiatric (P) syndromes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mutifactorial and includes primary immunopathogenic mechanisms, nonspecific sequelae of chronic disease, and concurrent illnesses. We compared the prevalence, diversity, and clinical significance of NP syndromes in patients with SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Fifty-three patients with SLE were matched by age and sex to 53 patients with RA attending ambulatory clinics in a single academic medical center. All fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria for either SLE or RA. Cumulative NP manifestations were determined using the ACR nomenclature and case definitions for 19 NP syndromes. Depression and anxiety were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS) and symptoms of cognitive dysfunction were assessed by the Cognitive Symptoms Inventory (CSI). Health related quality of life (HRQOL) was evaluated by the SF-36 and fatigue by a 10 point Likert scale.
The patients were well matched with regard to age, sex, disease duration, and years of education. There were no significant differences in self-reported HRQOL, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and cognitive symptoms between the 2 groups. The proportion of patients with cumulative NP events was higher in RA than in SLE patients (47% vs 28%; p = 0.045), and of these the occurrence of multiple NP events in individual patients was comparable in both groups (SLE 53%; RA 48%; p = 0.75). Fifty-five percent and 66% of NP events occurred prior to the diagnosis of SLE and RA, respectively. NP events common to both SLE and RA patients were headaches, mood disorders, acute confusional states, anxiety, cerebrovascular disease, and cognitive dysfunction. Seizures and demyelinating syndrome occurred only in SLE patients, but were rare. Depression scores (HADS) were significantly higher in SLE patients with a history of cumulative NP events compared to RA patients with NP events (p = 0.02). Similarly, symptoms of cognitive dysfunction (CSI) were more common in SLE patients with a history of NP manifestations (p = 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in SF-36 subscale or fatigue scores between SLE and RA patients with cumulative NP events.
NP syndromes, regardless of etiology, are common in both SLE and RA patients. SLE patients with NP syndromes report more symptoms of depression and cognitive dysfunction compared to RA patients with NP syndromes, but do not report significantly poorer HRQOL. These results emphasize the presence of non-disease-specific causes of NP manifestations in SLE patients, which should be acknowledged in future studies of pathogenesis and treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Barri J Fessler[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify reliable and valid instruments to measure cognitive impairment in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to define minimally important change of cognitive impairment in SLE for clinical trials. Neurocognitive measures used in randomized clinical trials in SLE were reviewed, and response criteria were developed using consensus expert opinion. The definition of cognitive impairment in the ACR nomenclature for neuropsychiatric lupus syndrome was adopted. Cognitive impairment is a deficit of 2.0 or more standard deviations (SD) below the mean, compared to normative data, in the key domains of attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Cognitive decline is defined as a deficit of 1.5-1.9 SD below the mean. Focal decline is defined if impairment exists in one or more measures within one domain, and multifocal decline if impairment exists on measures spanning two or more domains. The combination of ACR neuropsychological battery and the Cognitive Symptoms Inventory (CSI) is recommended to quantitate cognitive function. A clinically important response is defined as an improvement of > or = 1.0 SD with an effect size of 1.0 in the key domains of the ACR neuropsychological testing, and an improvement of > or = 1.0 SD with an effect size of 1.0 in functional performance of the CSI.Lupus 01/2007; 16(6):418-25. · 2.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as: 1) neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA); 2) neurocognitive dysfunction; and 3) magnetic resonance imaging of focal brain lesions has not been established. A 6-year study of 30 patients with acute NPSLE (27 women, 38 ± 12 years of age), 46 age- and sex-matched SLE controls without NPSLE (42 women, 36 ± 12 years of age), and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 women, 34 ± 11 years of age) who underwent clinical and laboratory evaluations, transesophageal echocardiography, carotid duplex ultrasound, transcranial Doppler ultrasound, neurocognitive testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography. Patients with NPSLE were re-evaluated after 4.5 months of therapy. All patients were followed clinically for a median of 52 months. Libman-Sacks vegetations (87%), cerebromicroembolism (27% with 2.5 times more events per hour), neurocognitive dysfunction (60%), and cerebral infarcts (47%) were more common in NPSLE than in SLE (28%, 20%, 33%, and 0%) and healthy controls (8%, 0%, 4%, and 0%, respectively) (all p ≤ 0.009). Patients with vegetations had 3 times more cerebromicroemboli per hour, lower cerebral blood flow, more strokes/TIA and overall NPSLE events, neurocognitive dysfunction, cerebral infarcts, and brain lesion load than those without (all p ≤ 0.01). Libman-Sacks vegetations were independent risk factors of NPSLE (odds ratio [OR]: 13.4; p < 0.001), neurocognitive dysfunction (OR: 8.0; p = 0.01), brain lesions (OR: 5.6; p = 0.004), and all 3 outcomes combined (OR: 7.5; p < 0.001). Follow-up re-evaluations in 18 of 23 (78%) surviving patients with NPSLE demonstrated improvement of vegetations, microembolism, brain perfusion, neurocognitive dysfunction, and lesion load (all p ≤ 0.04). Finally, patients with vegetations had reduced event-free survival time to stroke/TIA, cognitive disability, or death (p = 0.007). The presence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis in patients with SLE was associated with a higher risk for embolic CVD. This suggests that Libman-Sacks endocarditis may be a source of cerebral emboli.JACC. Cardiovascular imaging 09/2013; 6(9):973-83. · 14.29 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To date, CNS disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus (NP-SLE) have been understudied compared to end-organ failure and peripheral pathology. In this review, we focus on a specific mouse model of lupus and the ways in which this model reflects some of the most common manifestations and potential mechanisms of human NP-SLE. The mouse MRL lymphoproliferation strain (a.k.a. MRL/lpr) spontaneously develops the hallmark serological markers and peripheral pathologies typifying lupus in addition to displaying the cognitive and affective dysfunction characteristic of NP-SLE, which may be among the earliest symptoms of lupus. We suggest that although NP-SLE may share common mechanisms with peripheral organ pathology in lupus, especially in the latter stages of the disease, the immunologically privileged nature of the CNS indicates that early manifestations of particularly mood disorders maybe derived from some unique mechanisms. These include altered cytokine profiles that can activate astrocytes, microglia, and alter neuronal function before dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier and development of clinical autoantibody titres.BioMed Research International 01/2011; 2011:207504. · 2.71 Impact Factor