Metaplastic breast carcinoma on fine-needle cytology samples: A report of three cases
ABSTRACT Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) may have a varied presentation on fine-needle cytology samples. We herewith describe three cases of MBC found in our series. One of these cases showed a peculiar mixture of malignant ductal, apocrine type, and squamous epithelial cells with fascicles of spindle cells with variable degree of atypia and was diagnosed as metaplastic carcinoma of the carcino-sarcomatous type. The other two lesions were characterized by an abundant chondroid extracellular matrix to which were variably admixed carcinomatous and chondroid-type cells, with variable degree of atypia. Both these latter cases were defined as matrix-producing metaplastic carcinomas. Because of the various presentation of MBC on fine-needle cytology samples and the possible influence of needle "sampling" on the cytological specimen, the spectrum of differential diagnoses to be considered may encompass a number of benign and malignant entities, like keratinous subareolar cysts, malignant fibroepithelial lesions with myxo-chondroid stroma, and true sarcomas of the breast, with cartilaginous metaplasia. It is the Authors' feeling that, with optimal samples, the cytomorphological findings of this rare variant of breast carcinoma permit its accurate pre-operative diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare malignancy comprised of ductal, squamous and/or mesenchymal elements with problematic diagnosis. This study analyses MBC identifying its cytologic and histologic features and emphasizing the combined role of FNAC, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in its diagnosis. Cytology and histopathology files search yielded 21 cases identified as MBC from January 2005 to December 2010. FNAC and the histopathology slides were re-examined for the presence and frequency of various elements. Cytological and histopathological diagnoses were made and the cases subtyped according to WHO classification. Cytokeratin and vimenten IHC were used to confirm diagnosis when required. On FNAC, 52.4% were diagnosed as malignant, 9.5% as suspicious for malignancy and 38.1% as benign lesions. Most frequent cytologic findings were squamous and spindle cell elements (52.4% each). Histopathology revealed 76.2% pure epithelial tumors and 23.8% mixed epithelial-mesenchymal tumors. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequent histological subtype (33.3%). Carcinosarcomas were dimorphic on IHC& spindle cell carcinomas were positive for both cytokeratin and vimentin. Presence of dual components, squamous, spindle elements, mesenchymal fragments and necrosis in moderate to high cellularity breast FNAC provides clues for the diagnosis of MBC. FNAC; histopathology and IHC complement for diagnosis.Breast disease 01/2013; 34(2):67-75. DOI:10.3233/BD-130353
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm in the breast generally associated with an adverse prognosis. Materials and methods we report a case of breast carcinosarcoma in a male breast. Results identification of malignant heterologous elements is the key to use this designation. Conclusions Carcinosarcomas are very aggressive tumours with a worse prognosis compared with ductal adenocarcinomas in the same stage. There are no image and clinical criteria to make an early diagnosis. Histological diagnosis will be definitive.07/2006; 39(3):180–182. DOI:10.1016/S1699-8855(06)70035-6
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ABSTRACT: Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes. Detailed cytomorphological features were studied in the four special and unusual types of breast cancer cases (8 cases of mucinous, 9 medullary, 9 apocrime, and 11 papillary) and compared between themselves and with those of 32 duct cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS). Papillary carcinomas were also compared with 10 benign papillary lesions. The significance of the differences was determined using Fishers' Exact Test of Probability. In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001). In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001). Further, moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism (100.0%) and nuclear irregularity (77.8%) was significantly higher than those of mucinous carcinoma and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0294 to <0.0003). Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001). Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022). The significant parameters differentiating papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were loose cohesive clusters (P = 0.001) and acinar formation by neoplastic cells (P = 0.0237). Histopathology reports available in 36 cases, confirmed the cytodiagnosis of carcinoma in all 35 cases and the benign lesion in one case. Cytological subtyping was confirmed in 13 of 16 special types of carcinomas and all the 15 duct cell carcinoma (NOS). Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS). However, differentiating features between papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were very few in this study. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2007;35:408–416. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Diagnostic Cytopathology 07/2007; 35(7):408 - 416. DOI:10.1002/dc.20661