TOR complex 2 integrates cell movement during chemotaxis and signal relay in Dictyostelium.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences and Center for Molecular Genetics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0380, USA.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.55). 11/2005; 16(10):4572-83. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E05-04-0342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dictyostelium cells form a multicellular organism through the aggregation of independent cells. This process requires both chemotaxis and signal relay in which the chemoattractant cAMP activates adenylyl cyclase through the G protein-coupled cAMP receptor cAR1. cAMP is produced and secreted and it activates receptors on neighboring cells, thereby relaying the chemoattractant signal to distant cells. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analyses, we have identified a TOR-containing complex in Dictyostelium that is related to the TORC2 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and regulates both chemotaxis and signal relay. We demonstrate that mutations in Dictyostelium LST8, RIP3, and Pia, orthologues of the yeast TORC2 components LST8, AVO1, and AVO3, exhibit a common set of phenotypes including reduced cell polarity, chemotaxis speed and directionality, phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and the related PKBR1, and activation of adenylyl cyclase. Further, we provide evidence for a role of Ras in the regulation of TORC2. We propose that, through the regulation of chemotaxis and signal relay, TORC2 plays an essential role in controlling aggregation by coordinating the two essential arms of the developmental pathway that leads to multicellularity in Dictyostelium.


Available from: Koichi Okumura, Apr 01, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue is the primary site for thermogenesis and can consume, in addition to free fatty acids, a very high amount of glucose from the blood, which can both acutely and chronically affect glucose homeostasis. Here, we show that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 has a novel role in β3-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue. We show that β3-adrenoceptors stimulate glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue via a signaling pathway that is comprised of two different parts: one part dependent on cAMP-mediated increases in GLUT1 transcription and de novo synthesis of GLUT1 and another part dependent on mTOR complex 2-stimulated translocation of newly synthesized GLUT1 to the plasma membrane, leading to increased glucose uptake. Both parts are essential for β3-adrenoceptor-stimulated glucose uptake. Importantly, the effect of β3-adrenoceptor on mTOR complex 2 is independent of the classical insulin-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway, highlighting a novel mechanism of mTOR complex 2 activation.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2014; 207(3):365-74. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201403080 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundIn our previous study we found that the expression of stlA showed peaks both in the early and last stages of development and that a product of SteelyA, 4-methyl-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (MPBD), controlled Dictyostelium spore maturation during the latter. In this study we focused on the role of SteelyA in early stage development.Principal FindingsOur stlA null mutant showed aggregation delay and abnormally small aggregation territories. Chemotaxis analysis revealed defective cAMP chemotaxis in the stlA null mutant. cAMP chemotaxis was restored by MPBD addition during early stage development. Assay for cAMP relay response revealed that the stlA null mutant had lower cAMP accumulation during aggregation, suggesting lower ACA activity than the wild type strain. Exogenous cAMP pulses rescued the aggregation defect of the stlA null strain in the absence of MPBD. Expression analysis of cAMP signalling genes revealed lower expression levels in the stlA null mutant during aggregation.ConclusionOur data indicate a regulatory function by SteelyA on cAMP signalling during aggregation and show that SteelyA is indispensable for full activation of ACA.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106634. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106634 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TORC2 is a serine-threonine kinase complex conserved through evolution that recently emerged as a new regulator of actin dynamics and cell migration. However, knockout in mice of its core components Sin1 and Rictor is embryonic lethal, which has limited in vivo analyses. Here, we analysed TORC2 function during early zebrafish development, using a morpholino-mediated loss of function of sin1. Sin1 appears required during gastrulation for migration of the prechordal plate, the anterior most mesoderm. In absence of Sin1, cells migrate both slower and less persistently, which can be correlated to a reduction in actin-rich protrusions and a randomisation of the remaining protrusions. These results demonstrate that, as established in vitro, the TORC2 component Sin1 controls actin dynamics and cell migration in vivo. We furthermore establish that Sin1 is required for protrusion formation downstream of PI3K, and is acting upstream of the GTPase Rac1, since expression of an activated form of Rac1 is sufficient to rescue sin1 loss of function.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(2):e0118474. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118474 · 3.53 Impact Factor