Antinociceptive activity of alcoholic extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in mice
ABSTRACT The ethanolic extract of roots of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) was investigated for possible antinociceptive effect in mice. Three models were used to study the effects of extracts on nociception, which was induced, by acetic acid (Writhing test), formalin (Paw licking test) and hot plate test in mice. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. extract was administered in the dose range of 25, 50 and 100mg/kg orally 1h prior to pain induction. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of triterpenes, flavonoids, pregnane glycosides and steroids. Oral administration of Hemidesmus indicus extract revealed dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the models for antinociception and it blocked both the neurogenic and inflammatory pain and the nociceptive activity was comparable with the reference drug. The results indicate that alcoholic extract of Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. possesses a significant antinociceptive activity. The activity can be related with the significant phytochemicals such as triterpenes, flavonoids, and sterols reported in the root extract.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Prashant Verma, Sep 28, 2015
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- "Traditionally it is being used for the treatment of epileptic fits in children. Methanolic roots extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) nociception at a dose of 50 mg/kg in mice. Even the methanolic root extract of H. indicus was also proven to be an effective neuro-protectant and reduce the cerebral infraction when tested in rats. "
ABSTRACT: Background:The plants selected for the study were traditionally used in siddha system of medicine in neurological disorders.Aim:The aim of the following study isto screen the plant species for both acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE) inhibition by in-vitro Ellman's method and a thin layer chromatography bioautographic assay for newer drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.Materials and Methods:Ellman's colorimetric method was performed in a 96 well micro plate for cholinesterases inhibition using galantamine as standard drug.Results:Present studies confirmed that out of all the tested extracts Hemidesmus indicus R.Br (HI) showed considerable IC50 values for AchE (28.40 ± 0.92 μg/mL) and BuchE (43.47 ± 0.64 μg/mL) inhibition which indicates that HI extract has considerable specificity toward AchE and BuchE compared with all the tested extracts and the activity was followed by Vernonia anthelmintica (VA) Willd and Saussurea lappa Clarke (SL). The bioautograms also confirmed the activity potent extracts.Conclusion:Besides various bioactivities HI, VA and SL exhibited considerable cholinesterases inhibition making it to consider these species for further investigation of new compounds.Pharmacognosy Magazine 04/2014; 10(Suppl 2):S294-8. DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.133281 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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- "direct action of formalin on nociceptors within the intraplantar region. Meanwhile, the late phase, which appears between 15 and 60 min after the phlogistic agent administration, is considered as an inflammatory-mediated pain resulting from a tonic response due to the release of inflammatory mediators  and activation of the neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord  . Other advantages of this assay include its ability to verify the potential of new compounds/extracts to affect noninflammatory or inflammatory-associated pain. "
ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G). These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls); morphine and aspirin (positive controls) for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (3), and calaburone (4). At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013(1):715074. DOI:10.1155/2013/715074 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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- "This model evaluates two distinct phase of nociception. The first phase, classified as a neurogenic pain, is an acute response observed immediately after the administration of formalin , persisting for 5 min and that occurs through direct chemical stimulation promoted by formalin on nociceptors, in type C and part of the Aδ afferent fibers; it is also associated with the release of excitatory amino acids, as glutamate, aspartate, taurine and glycine that are known to be involved in the transmission of peripheral nociception (Verma et al., 2005; Malmberg and Yaksh, 1995). The second phase appears between 15 and 60 min after the formalin administration, classified as an inflammatory pain, and is a tonic response associated with the release of chemical mediators such as histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, prostaglandins and excitatory amino acids (Sani et al., 2012). "
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of carvacryl acetate, a derivative of carvacrol, in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using various phlogistic agents that induce paw edema, peritonitis model, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, pro and anti- inflammatory cytokine levels. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity was conducted through acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate test, formalin test, capsaicin and glutamate tests, as well as evaluation of motor performance on rotarod test. Pretreatment of mice with carvacryl acetate (75mg/kg) significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema (P<0.05) when compared to vehicle-treated group. Likewise, carvacryl acetate (75mg/kg) strongly inhibited edema induced by histamine, serotonin, prostaglandin E2 and compound 48/80. In the peritonitis model, carvacryl acetate significantly decreased total and differential leukocyte counts, and reduced levels of myeloperoxidase and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the peritoneal exudate. The levels of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, were enhanced by carvacryl acetate. Pretreatment with carvacryl acetate also decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhing, increased the latency time of the animals on the hot plate and decreased paw licking time in the formalin, capsaicin and glutamate tests. The pretreatment with naloxone did not reverse the carvacryl acetate-mediated nociceptive effect. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that carvacryl acetate exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in mice by reducing inflammatory mediators, neutrophil migration and cytokine concentration, and anti-nociceptive activity due to the involvement of capsaicin and glutamate pathways.Life sciences 11/2013; 94(1). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.11.001 · 2.70 Impact Factor