Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species.
ABSTRACT Virtually nothing is known about the structure, function, and evolutionary origins of the C3aR in nonmammalian species. Because C3aR and C5aR are thought to have arisen from the same common ancestor, the recent characterization of a C5aR in teleost fish implied the presence of a C3aR in this animal group. In this study we report the cloning of a trout cDNA encoding a 364-aa molecule (TC3aR) that shows a high degree of sequence homology and a strong phylogenetic relationship with mammalian C3aRs. Northern blotting demonstrated that TC3aR was expressed primarily in blood leukocytes. Flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy showed that Abs raised against TC3aR stained to a high degree all blood B lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, all granulocytes. More importantly, these Abs inhibited trout C3a-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in trout leukocytes. A fascinating structural feature of TC3aR is the lack of a significant portion of the second extracellular loop (ECL2). In all C3aR molecules characterized to date, the ECL2 is exceptionally large when compared with the same region of C5aR. However, the exact function of the extra portion of ECL2 is unknown. The lack of this segment in TC3aR suggests that the extra piece of ECL2 was not necessary for the interaction of the ancestral C3aR with its ligand. Our findings represent the first C3aR characterized in nonmammalian species and support the hypothesis that if C3aR and C5aR diverged from a common ancestor, this event occurred before the emergence of teleost fish.
Article: Histamine is stored in mast cells of most evolutionarily advanced fish and regulates the fish inflammatory response.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mast cells are important as initiators and effectors of innate immunity and regulate the adaptive immune responses. They have been described in all classes of vertebrates and seem to be morphologically and functionally similar. However, early studies had shown that fish and amphibian mast cells were devoid of histamine. In this study, we take a fresh look at the evolution of histamine and find that the mast cells of fish belonging to the Perciformes order, the largest and most evolutionarily advanced order of teleosts, are armed with histamine. More importantly, histamine is biologically active in these fish where it is able to regulate the inflammatory response by acting on professional phagocytes. In addition, the actions of histamine in these immune cells seem to be mediated through the engagement of H(1) and H(2) receptors, which, together with the H(3) receptor, are well conserved in bony fish. We propose that the storage of histamine in vertebrate mast cells and its use as an inflammatory messenger was established in primitive reptiles (Lepidosauria) approximately 276 million years ago. This same feature seems to have developed independently in Perciform fish much more recently in the Lower Eocene, between 55 and 45 million years ago, a short period during which the great majority of Percomorph families appeared.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2008; 104(49):19434-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor
Article: Conservation of structural and functional features in a primordial CD80/86 molecule from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a primitive teleost fish.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In mammals, interaction of CD28 with CD80 or CD86 molecules provides costimulatory signals for T cell activation that leads to increased IL-2 gene and protein expression by activated T cells. Thus far, CD80 and CD86 have been cloned and functionally characterized only in mammals and birds. To shed light into the evolution of CD80 and CD86, we have cloned and functionally characterized a rainbow trout (rt) molecule (rtCD80/86) that shows the highest degree of sequence conservation and phylogenetic relationship with CD80 and CD86 molecules. Moreover, its genomic organization was almost identical to that of human CD86. Rainbow trout possess one membrane-bound and two soluble CD80/86 transcripts, all of which are derived from the same rtCD80/86 gene. The membrane-bound form exhibited its highest degree of expression in lymphoid tissues, particularly on B cells. Incubation of trout leukocytes with LPS and bacteria leads to up-regulation of rtCD80/86 gene expression. Importantly, we show that trout and other teleost fish contain a single CD80/86 gene, thus suggesting that this gene may represent the ancestor from which CD80 and CD86 arose by gene duplication in more evolved species. To gain further insights into the function of rtCD80/86, we have identified and cloned trout IL-2 and have shown that recombinantly produced trout CD80/86 up-regulates the expression of IL-2 in trout blood leukocytes. Significantly, this finding indicates that the capacity to modulate IL-2 expression is a primordial function that has been conserved both in fish and mammalian CD80/CD86 molecules throughout 350 million years of evolution.The Journal of Immunology 08/2009; 183(1):83-96. · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naïve T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity.Developmental and comparative immunology 11/2011; 35(12):1346-65. · 3.29 Impact Factor