Acid increases MAPK-mediated proliferation in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells via intracellular acidification through a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger
ABSTRACT Abundant epidemiological evidence links acid reflux to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus, but few studies have examined the cellular mechanisms by which acid promotes this neoplastic progression. We hypothesized that extracellular acid exposure causes intracellular acidification that triggers MAPK signaling and proliferation in Barrett's epithelial cells. We tested that hypothesis in a Barrett's-derived esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line (SEG-1). SEG-1 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of acid, and intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry. After acid exposure, ERK and p38 MAPK activation were measured by Western blot analysis and an immune complex kinase assay. Proliferation was measured by Coulter counter cell counts and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide incorporation assay. Exposure of SEG-1 cells to solutions with a pH between 3 and 6.5 caused a rapid, reversible decrease in pH(i) to a level approximately equal to extracellular pH. Acid exposure caused a rapid activation of both ERK and p38 MAPKs and also resulted in pH-dependent increases in cell number, with a maximum increase of 41% observed at pH 6.0. The MAPK activation and proliferation in SEG-1 cells induced by acid exposure could be blocked by pretreatment with disodium 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbine-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), which prevents intracellular acidification by inhibiting the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. In conclusion, in SEG-1 cells, extracellular acid exposure causes intracellular acidification, which activates MAPK and causes proliferation. The magnitude of these effects is pH dependent, and the effects can be inhibited by preventing intracellular acidification with DIDS.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the UK faster than any other malignancy. Despite its relatively poor prognosis and the limited success of existing treatments, there is enthusiasm that chemopreventive agents might be able to stem the transition from normal squamous epithelium to adenocarcinoma. We discuss gastro-oesophageal reflux as the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's metaplasia, the only known precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment options for reflux disease are considered with regard to their effects on cancer risk. Recent advances in the molecular and cell biology of Barrett's are outlined, and potential targets for chemoprevention examined. Available treatments for reflux disease have not convincingly altered the likelihood of cancer development. Epidemiological and animal studies support the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as potential chemopreventive agents. Dietary agents, however, have a more favourable side-effect profile and may prove to be an attractive alternative, although more work is needed to fully explore this prospect.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12/2005; 22(9):759-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02667.x · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the activation of the p38-MAPK signalling pathway during extracellular pH changes in the isolated perfused amphibian heart. Extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.5 or 9.5) maximally activated p38-MAPK within 2 min (4.17- and 3.20-fold, respectively) and this effect was reversible since the kinase phosphorylation levels decreased upon reperfusing the heart with normal Tris-Tyrode's buffer. Extracellular acidosis also activated p38-MAPK moderately, but persistently (1.65-fold, at 1 min and 1.91-fold, at 60 min). The alkalosis-induced p38-MAPK activation depended upon the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, because it was abolished when the NHE inhibitors amiloride and HOE642 and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, were used. Our studies also showed that extracellular alkalosis (pH 8.5) induced MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation (2.59-fold, 2 min) and HSP27 phosphorylation (5.33-fold, 2 min) in a p38-MAPK-dependent manner, as it was inhibited with 1 micromol l(-1) SB203580. Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies of the phosphorylated forms of p38-MAPK and HSP27 revealed that these proteins were localised in the perinuclear region and dispersedly in the cytoplasm of ventricular cells during alkalosis. Finally, alkalosis induced the increase of HSP70 protein levels (1.52-fold, 5 min), but independently of p38-MAPK activation. These data indicate that the p38-MAPK signalling pathway is activated by extracellular pH changes and in the case of alkalosis this activation may have a protective role.Journal of Experimental Biology 05/2006; 209(Pt 7):1344-54. DOI:10.1242/jeb.02134 · 3.00 Impact Factor