Acid increases MAPK-mediated proliferation in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cells via intracellular acidification through a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger
ABSTRACT Abundant epidemiological evidence links acid reflux to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus, but few studies have examined the cellular mechanisms by which acid promotes this neoplastic progression. We hypothesized that extracellular acid exposure causes intracellular acidification that triggers MAPK signaling and proliferation in Barrett's epithelial cells. We tested that hypothesis in a Barrett's-derived esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line (SEG-1). SEG-1 cells were exposed to varying concentrations of acid, and intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured by 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry. After acid exposure, ERK and p38 MAPK activation were measured by Western blot analysis and an immune complex kinase assay. Proliferation was measured by Coulter counter cell counts and a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide incorporation assay. Exposure of SEG-1 cells to solutions with a pH between 3 and 6.5 caused a rapid, reversible decrease in pH(i) to a level approximately equal to extracellular pH. Acid exposure caused a rapid activation of both ERK and p38 MAPKs and also resulted in pH-dependent increases in cell number, with a maximum increase of 41% observed at pH 6.0. The MAPK activation and proliferation in SEG-1 cells induced by acid exposure could be blocked by pretreatment with disodium 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbine-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS), which prevents intracellular acidification by inhibiting the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. In conclusion, in SEG-1 cells, extracellular acid exposure causes intracellular acidification, which activates MAPK and causes proliferation. The magnitude of these effects is pH dependent, and the effects can be inhibited by preventing intracellular acidification with DIDS.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma is increasing in the UK faster than any other malignancy. Despite its relatively poor prognosis and the limited success of existing treatments, there is enthusiasm that chemopreventive agents might be able to stem the transition from normal squamous epithelium to adenocarcinoma. We discuss gastro-oesophageal reflux as the main risk factor for the development of Barrett's metaplasia, the only known precursor of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Treatment options for reflux disease are considered with regard to their effects on cancer risk. Recent advances in the molecular and cell biology of Barrett's are outlined, and potential targets for chemoprevention examined. Available treatments for reflux disease have not convincingly altered the likelihood of cancer development. Epidemiological and animal studies support the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as potential chemopreventive agents. Dietary agents, however, have a more favourable side-effect profile and may prove to be an attractive alternative, although more work is needed to fully explore this prospect.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12/2005; 22(9):759-68. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02667.x · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Furosemide, a blocker of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC), is often used as a diuretic to improve edema, ascites, and pleural effusion of patients with cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an NKCC blocker affects cancer cell growth. If so, we would clarify the mechanism of this action. We found that poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cells (MKN45) expressed the mRNA of NKCC1 three times higher than moderately differentiated ones (MKN28) and that the NKCC in MKN45 showed higher activity than that in MKN28. A cell proliferation assay indicates that furosemide significantly inhibited cell growth in MKN45 cells, but not in MKN28 cells. Using flow cytometrical analysis, we found that the exposure to furosemide brought MKN45 cells to spend more time at the G(0)/G(1) phase, but not MKN28 cells. Based on these observations, we indicate that furosemide diminishes cell growth by delaying the G(1)-S phase progression in poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cells, which show high expression and activity of NKCC, but not in moderately differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cells with low expression and NKCC activity.The Journal of Physiological Sciences 01/2006; 56(6):401-6. DOI:10.2170/physiolsci.RP010806 · 1.25 Impact Factor