Do tissue levels of autoantigenic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase predict clinical disease?
ABSTRACT The etiologies of most autoimmune diseases are not completely understood. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) are a family of heterogenous enzymes responsible for protein synthesis and whose secondary functions include a role in autoimmune myositis. A subset of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies demonstrate autoantibody against specific cytoplasmic AARS and the human asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (AsnRS) has been shown to be a potent chemokine that interacts with CCR3 chemokine receptors. One way in which a chemotactic cytoplasmic enzyme might contribute to tissue inflammation is if it were abundant in a specific injured tissue and thereby released to the microenvironment at times of cellular damage. To test this hypothesis, the relative levels of AsnRS mRNA were studied in six human tissues. A 1.6 kbF RNA probe identified highly variable levels of the corresponding mRNA in Northern blot analysis of human lung, brain, heart, skeletal muscle, pancreas and liver. The highest levels of signal were noted in muscle and pancreas. Polyclonal antibody raised against recombinant human AsnRS identified abundant antigenic material in the pancreas, in particular in islet cells. Thus, the local abundance of an endogenous pro-inflammatory autoantigen may provide one explanation for perpetuation or exacerbation of tissue specific immune-mediated pathologies.
SourceAvailable from: Sang Gyu Park[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate whether or not antiaminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS) autoantibodies could be detected in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and be used as a diagnostic marker for type 1 DM, autoantibodies against aaRSs were measured in the plasma of normal subjects, patients with type 1 DM and patients with type 2 DM. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect anti-aaRS autoantibodies in the plasma of normal subjects, and patients with type 1 DM, and patients with type 2 DM. From the 65 (normal), 58 (type 1 DM) and 57 (type 2 DM) subjects, anti-aaRS autoantibodies were found in 37.9% of patients with type 1 DM compared with 1.54% of the non-diabetic controls, and 5.26% of the patients with type 2 DM (p <0.0001). In addition, anti-aaRS autoantibodies were identified in 30% of patients with type 1 DM without classical type 1 DM autoantibodies. Anti-aaRS autoantibodies were identified in 37.9% of patients with type 1 DM. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that autoantibodies against aaRSs are specifically associated with type 1 DM.Biomarkers 06/2010; 15(4):358-66. DOI:10.3109/13547501003777823 · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nontranslational functions of vertebrate aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which catalyze the production of aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein synthesis, have recently been discovered. Although these new functions were thought to be 'moonlighting activities', many are as critical for cellular homeostasis as their activity in translation. New roles have been associated with their cytoplasmic forms as well as with nuclear and secreted extracellular forms that affect pathways for cardiovascular development and the immune response and mTOR, IFN-γ and p53 signaling. The associations of aaRSs with autoimmune disorders, cancers and neurological disorders further highlight nontranslational functions of these proteins. New architecture elaborations of the aaRSs accompany their functional expansion in higher organisms and have been associated with the nontranslational functions for several aaRSs. Although a general understanding of how these functions developed is limited, the expropriation of aaRSs for essential nontranslational functions may have been initiated by co-opting the amino acid-binding site for another purpose.Nature Chemical Biology 02/2013; 9(3):145-53. DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1158 · 12.95 Impact Factor
Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies - Recent Developments, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-694-2