Cognitive predictors of psychosocial functioning outcome in schizophrenia: a follow-up study of subjects participating in a rehabilitation program.
ABSTRACT The aims of this prospective study were to explore in subjects with psychosis participating in a rehabilitation program whether cognitive performances at baseline predicted (i) psychosocial functioning over a 15-16 month follow-up; (ii) improvement in psychosocial functioning over the rehabilitation program. Visuo-spatial tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to assess cognitive performance in 55 subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who completed a rehabilitation program. The Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS) was used to measure dimensions of community functioning. One subscale of the Client's Assessment of Strengths, Interests, and Goals (CASIG) provided a measure of subjective quality of life (QoL). Improvement was defined as a 15% or more increase in psychosocial scores between baseline and follow-up. Worse baseline sustained attention predicted better self-rated quality of life, and better baseline visual memory predicted better community functioning over the rehabilitation follow-up period, in particular, higher autonomy in activities of daily living, and less physical and psychiatric symptoms that could interfere with rehabilitation. Baseline cognitive performances predicted community functioning improvement during the follow-up period: visual memory predicted improvement in daily living autonomy and in social competence; sustained attention predicted improvement in behavioral problems (such as medication compliance, collaboration with treatment providers or impulse control) and social competence; planning performances predicted improvement in social competence. These cognitive functions could be specifically targeted in a rehabilitation program aimed at enhancing functioning in those particular dimensions.
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ABSTRACT: There has been a surge of interest in the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The published literature in this area has doubled in the last few years. In this paper, we will attempt to confirm the conclusions from a previous review that certain neurocognitive domains (secondary verbal memory, immediate memory, executive functioning as measured by card sorting, and vigilance) are associated with functional outcome. In addition to surveying the number of replicated findings and tallying box scores of results, we will approach the review of the studies in a more thorough and empirical manner by applying a meta-analysis. Lastly, we will discuss what we see as a key limitation of this literature, specifically, the relatively narrow selection of predictor measures. This limitation has constrained identification of mediating variables that may explain the mechanisms for these relationships.Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2000; 26(1):119-36. · 8.49 Impact Factor
Article: Specific impairments of planning.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An information-processing model is outlined that predicts that performance on non-routine tasks can be impaired independently of performance on routine tasks. The model is related to views on frontal lobe functions, particularly those of Luria. Two methods of obtaining more rigorous tests of the model are discussed. One makes use of ideas from artificial intelligence to derive a task heavily loaded on planning abilities. A group of patients with left anterior lesions has a specific deficit on the task. Subsidiary investigations support the inference that this is a planning impairment.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 07/1982; 298(1089):199-209. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite a number of studies that have indicated impaired memory function in patients with schizophrenia, there have been few that have used a sensitive measure of right medial temporal lobe pathology. Given the reported findings of reduced hippocampal volume in schizophrenia, we used a theoretically sensitive test of the right medial temporal lobe to determine the nature of the visuospatial memory deficit in the disorder. Seventy-six patients (37 with a first-episode schizophreniform psychosis, and 39 with established schizophrenia) were compared with 41 comparison subjects on a number of tests of visuospatial memory. These included spatial working memory, spatial and pattern recognition memory and a pattern-location associative learning test. Both patient groups displayed recognition memory deficits when compared to the comparison group. However, only those patients with established schizophrenia (of 9 years duration on average) were impaired on the associative learning test. The results indicate either a progressive decline in visuospatial associative learning ability over the course of the disorder, or that poor visuospatial associative learning is a marker for poor prognosis. In addition, these results have implications for our understanding of the role of the right medial temporal lobe in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.Psychological Medicine 05/2002; 32(3):429-38. · 5.59 Impact Factor