Differential expression of splice variant and wild-type parkin in sporadic Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Altered splicing of parkin under cellular stress could lead to changes in gene expression and altered protein activity. The causative role of parkin in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown.
We described a parkin splice variant (SV) in the substantia nigra and leukocytes of sporadic PD patients. Using a case control methodology, we investigated the exon 4 SV (E4SV) and wild-type parkin expression in the leukocytes of sporadic PD patients and healthy individuals.
We identified a parkin E4SV in the substantia nigra and leukocytes of sporadic PD patients and controls by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The exon 4 (122 bp) deletion resulted in a reading frame shift over the junction of exons 3-5 and a stop codon (tga) 17 bp downstream from exon 3. The translated truncated protein was associated with a total loss of the two-RING finger functional domain. Utilizing TaqMan real-time PCR with probes located across the junction of exons 3-4 or 3-5, we demonstrated an over-expression of E4SV/wild-type parkin ratio in the leukocytes of sporadic PD patients compared to age-, gender-, and race-matched controls (p<0.0005). A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the ratio of E4SV/wild-type parkin expression increased with age in PD patients, but this was not observed in the controls (p<0.0005).
The relative expression of E4SV/wild type parkin was increased in sporadic PD compared to healthy controls. Based on our observations, further functional studies to determine the pathophysiologic role of E4SV in sporadic PD patients will be of importance.
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ABSTRACT: We have isolated mouse cDNA clones that are homologous to human Parkin gene, which was recently found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP). One of these cDNA clones had the 1,392-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 464 amino acids with presumed molecular weight of 51,615. The amino acid sequence of mouse parkin protein exhibits 83.2% identity to human Parkin protein, including the ubiquitin-like domain at the N-terminus (identity = 89.5%) and the RING finger-like domain at the C-terminus (identity = 90.6%). Two other clones had the 783-bp open reading frame encoding a truncated protein of 261 amino acids without RING finger-like domain. It was proved to be a novel splicing variant by 3'-RACE method. Northern blot analysis revealed that mouse parkin gene is expressed in various tissues including brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testis. It is notable that mouse parkin gene expression appears evident in 15th day mouse embryo and increases toward the later stage of development. These mouse parkin cDNA clones will be useful for elucidating the essential physiological function of parkin protein in mammals.Mammalian Genome 07/2000; 11(6):417-21. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, usually beginning before the age of 40. We found three exonic deletions and two novel point mutations (Arg33Stop and Cys431Phe) in six families with autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. In 1 family, in which an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance was suspected, multiple mutant alleles were identified. Although a wide range of ages at onset was observed, there was no correlation between age at onset and genotype.Annals of Neurology 09/2000; 48(2):245-50. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253; the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have now isolated a complementary DNA done of 2,960 base pairs with a 1,395-base-pair open reading frame, encoding a protein of 465 amino acids with moderate similarity to ubiquitin at the amino terminus and a RING-finger motif at the carboxy terminus. The gene spans more than 500 kilobases and has 12 exons, five of which (exons 3-7) are deleted in the patient. Four other AR-JP patients from three unrelated families have a deletion affecting exon 4 alone. A 4.5-kilobase transcript that is expressed in many human tissues but is abundant in the brain, including the substantia nigra, is shorter in brain tissue from one of the groups of exon-4-deleted patients. Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AR-JP, and we have therefore named the protein product 'Parkin'.Nature 05/1998; 392(6676):605-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor