Serological and molecular diversity in the cattle MHC class I region.
ABSTRACT Information on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity in cattle is important to aid our understanding of immune responses and may contribute to maintenance of healthy cattle populations. Equally, understanding the mechanisms involved in generating this diversity may shed light on the complex nature of mammalian MHC evolution. The aim of this study was to assess molecular and serological variation within cattle MHC class I molecules and to study the mechanisms generating diversity. To address this aim, sequence variation was examined in 12 serologically assigned alleles from three putative loci and correlated with monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding data. The results demonstrate that both alloantisera and mAbs often fail to distinguish gene products that differ by a significant number of amino acids. Conversely, some mAbs could distinguish alleles differing by only one or two amino acids. Examination of the sequences demonstrates sharing of motifs between alleles, some encoded at distinct loci, supporting the occurrence of interlocus recombination within the cattle MHC class I region. The implications of this for MHC sequence diversity, and functional capability, are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The present study set out to examine the nature and specificity of the bovine CD8 T cell response at the clonal level in a group of eight animals immunized with a cloned population of Theileria annulata. The results demonstrated that immunized animals generated parasite-specific CD8 T cells that produced IFN in response to parasite stimulation but had highly variable levels of cytotoxicity for parasitized cells. The study also demonstrated that these parasite-specific CD8 T cells could be propagated and cloned in vitro from the memory T cell pool of cattle immunized with live T. annulata parasites. Within the small group of animals studied, there was evidence that responses were preferentially directed to antigens presented by an A10+ class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype, suggesting that responses restricted by products of this haplotype may be dominant. The A10-restricted responses showed differential recognition of different parasite isolates and clones. By using a cloned population of parasites both for immunization of the animals and for in vitro analyses of the responses, we obtained unambiguous evidence that at least a proportion of CD8 T cells restricted by one MHC haplotype were parasite strain restricted.Parasite Immunology 06/2008; 30(8):385-93. · 2.60 Impact Factor
Article: CD8+ T-cell responses to Theileria parva are preferentially directed to a single dominant antigen: Implications for parasite strain-specific immunity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although immunodominance of CD8(+) T-cell responses is a well-recognised feature of viral infections, its role in responses to more antigenically complex pathogens is less clear. In previous studies we have observed that CD8(+) T-cell responses to Theileria parva exhibit different patterns of parasite strain specificity in cattle of different MHC genotypes. In the current study, we demonstrated that animals homozygous for the A10 and A18 MHC haplotypes have detectable responses to only one of 5 T. parva antigens. Over 60% of the responding T cells from the A18(+) and A10(+) animals recognised defined epitopes in the Tp1 and Tp2 antigens, respectively. Comparison of T-cell receptor beta chain expression profiles of CD8(+) T-cell lines and CD8(+) T cells harvested ex vivo confirmed that the composition of the T-cell lines was representative of the in vivo memory CD8(+) T-cell populations. Analysis of the Tp1 and Tp2 antigens revealed sequence polymorphism, which was reflected by differential recognition by T-cell lines. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a profound immunodominance in the CD8(+) T-cell response to T. parva, which we propose is a major determinant of the parasite strain specificity of the response and hence immune protection.European Journal of Immunology 09/2009; 39(9):2459-69. · 5.10 Impact Factor
Article: Extensive polymorphism and evidence of immune selection in a highly dominant antigen recognized by bovine CD8 T cells specific for Theileria annulata.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although parasite strain-restricted CD8 T cell responses have been described for several protozoa, the precise role of antigenic variability in immunity is poorly understood. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata infects leukocytes and causes an acute, often fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. Building on previous evidence of strain-restricted CD8 T cell responses to T. annulata, this study set out to identify and characterize the variability of the target antigens. Three antigens were identified by screening expressed parasite cDNAs with specific CD8 T cell lines. In cattle expressing the A10 class I major histocompatibility complex haplotype, A10-restricted CD8 T cell responses were shown to be focused entirely on a single dominant epitope in one of these antigens (Ta9). Sequencing of the Ta9 gene from field isolates of T. annulata demonstrated extensive sequence divergence, resulting in amino acid polymorphism within the A10-restricted epitope and a second A14-restricted epitope. Statistical analysis of the allelic sequences revealed evidence of positive selection for amino acid substitutions within the region encoding the CD8 T cell epitopes. Sequence differences in the A10-restricted epitope were shown to result in differential recognition by individual CD8 T cell clones, while clones also differed in their ability to recognize different alleles. Moreover, the representation of these clonal specificities within the responding CD8 T cell populations differed between animals. As well as providing an explanation for incomplete protection observed after heterologous parasite challenge of vaccinated cattle, these results have important implications for the choice of antigens for the development of novel subunit vaccines.Infection and immunity 02/2011; 79(5):2059-69. · 4.21 Impact Factor