Young people driving after drinking and riding with drinking drivers: drinking locations--what do they tell us?
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the extent to which drinking in specific locations and heavy drinking mediated the effects of overall alcohol use on driving after drinking (DD) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) among young people. Additionally, this study examined the relationships among ethnicity, gender, drinking in specific locations, and DD and RWDD.
Using random-digit dialing procedures, participants were recruited to take part in a telephone survey in California, United States of America. Participants were 1,534 youth, ages 15-20 years (mean age = 17.6). Latinos, African Americans, and Asian Americans were over-sampled to allow cross-group comparisons. Along with background characteristics, overall alcohol use, heavy drinking, drinking in specific locations, DD, and RWDD were measured.
Latent variable structural equation modeling showed that European Americans, males, older adolescents, those who have a driver license, and those who drive more often were more likely to report drinking alcohol in the past year. Heavy episodic drinking and drinking in cars increased both DD and RWDD. Drinking in restaurants also increased DD. The effects of overall alcohol consumption on DD were entirely mediated through heavy episodic drinking and drinking in restaurants and cars. Alcohol consumption had both direct and indirect effects on RWDD. With the exception of being Latino and frequency of driving, the effects of the background variables on RWDD were all entirely mediated through alcohol consumption.
Heavy drinking and drinking in specific locations appeared to be important unique predictors of both DD and RWDD. In light of the relationship between drinking in restaurants and in cars, and DD, prevention programs and policies aimed at underage drinking should focus on developing more effective responsible beverage service programs, increasing compliance with laws limiting alcohol sales to youth, and enforcing graduated driver licensing and zero tolerance laws.
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ABSTRACT: This paper examines ethnic disparities in rates of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) in a representative sample of Ontario adults. Data were drawn from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor, a survey of 8276 Ontario adults aged 18 and older. We considered 19 distinct ethnic groups based on participants’ self-identification of ethno-cultural heritage. Differences in the prevalence of DUIA across ethnic groups were limited. Relative to other ethnic groups, those adults who identified as Irish had a significantly higher rate of DUIA, while those of Italian and Chinese ethnicity had significantly lower rates of DUIA. The mediating effects of psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and harmful and problematic drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] consumption, dependence and problems) on the direct relationship between ethnic identity and impaired driving were also considered. Mediation was observed as remaining ethnic differences in DUIA disappeared when AUDIT subscales were introduced. These findings are interpreted in the context of patterns of alcohol consumption among ethnic populations and their impact on DUIA. Implications of study findings are considered with respect to the role of ethnicity in impaired driving research and its impact on programs and policies directed at reducing impaired driving.Accident; analysis and prevention 07/2010; 42(4-42):1408-1415. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2010.03.005 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is the third update of research on graduated driver licensing (GDL) and related teenage driver issues. It briefly summarizes research published since or not included in the 2005 update (Hedlund, J., & Compton, R. (2005). Graduated driver licensing research in 2004 and 2005. Journal of Safety Research, 36(2), 109-119.), describes research in progress of which the authors are aware, and announces plans for a symposium on teenage driving and GDL to be held in February 2007. (c) 2006 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Safety Research 01/2006; 37(2):107-21. DOI:10.1016/j.jsr.2006.02.001 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine differences in risky driving behavior and likelihood of traffic crash according to the country of birth of recently licensed young drivers. The groups examined include those born in Australia, those born in Asia, and those born in other countries. The DRIVE study is a prospective cohort study of drivers aged 17-24 years holding their first-year provisional driver license in New South Wales, Australia. Information obtained from 20,822 participants who completed a baseline questionnaire was linked to police-reported traffic crashes. Self-reported risky driving behaviors and police-reported traffic crashes in young drivers. Young drivers who were born in Asian countries were less likely to report engaging in risky driving behaviors than their Australian-born counterparts. The proportion of participants reporting a high level of risky driving was 31.5 percent (95% confidence intervale [CI], 30.8-32.1) among Australian-born drivers compared to 25.6 percent (95% CI, 23.1-28.2) among Asian-born drivers and 30.4 percent (95% CI, 28.4-32.5) among those born in other regions. Asian-born participants had half the risk of a crash as a driver than their Australian-born counterparts (relative risk [RR] 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) after adjusting for a number of demographic factors and driving and risk-taking behaviors. The comparative risk was even lower among those aged 17 years (RR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.29-0.75). Risk estimates for people born in other regions did not differ to those for Australian-born respondents. The study highlights the lower level of risky driving and significantly reduced crash risk for Australian drivers born in Asian countries relative to those born locally. Further research is needed to examine factors underlying this reduced risk and the impact of the length of residence in the host country.Traffic Injury Prevention 06/2010; 11(3):222-7. DOI:10.1080/15389581003614888 · 1.29 Impact Factor