Practice nurses and older people: a case management approach to care
ABSTRACT This paper reports on aspects of a study designed to answer the research questions: (i) To what extent do practice nurses use the five cyclical elements of a case management approach when caring for people aged over 75 years? (ii) What determines or deters practice nurses' use of the cyclical elements of a case management approach in caring for older people?
Case management is an approach that uses a cyclical process of assessment, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation to provide systematic proactive care to people with complex health and social care needs. In England, specialist practice nurse case managers for older people have been piloted in ten primary care trusts and the posts are to be implemented nationally by 2008. No baseline work has, however, considered the applicability of developing the existing generalist practice nurse workforce.
A 26-item structured postal questionnaire was used to explore both practice nurses' use of a case management approach when working with older people, and what factors influenced the care provided. A random sample of 500 practice nurses was selected from the Royal College of Nursing Practice Nurse Association member database.
A 45% response rate was achieved. Practice nurses assessed, planned and implemented care, but reviewing medication opportunistically and evaluating the care were uncommon. A case management approach was significantly (P = 0.005) more likely to be used in on-going management activities than in one-off treatment room care. Practice nurses with postregistration education in district nursing were significantly (P = 0.016) more likely to refer patients to social care services. Lack of time and the central role of the general practitioner were the main reasons for not incorporating case management into practice. CONCLUSIONS. The extent to which practice nurses used elements of a case management approach was highly variable and influenced by individual professional expertise, the nature of the consultation and the practice nurse's position in the general practice.
- SourceAvailable from: Charlotte Taylor[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects.Primary Health Care Research & Development 04/2011; 12(2):95-111. DOI:10.1017/S1463423610000356
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study makes visible and gives value to the day-to-day experience of practice nurses who work in New Zealand general practices. Nursing leaders internationally and locally have highlighted the importance of the Primary Health Care nurse to improving health outcomes, addressing inequalities and implementing new models of care. As one of the largest groups of Primary Health Care nurses, practice nurses have a significant part to play. There is however, no consensus and limited research related to the day-to-day experience of practice nurses. Therefore, the nature, extent, and contribution of nursing in general practice may be overlooked or misunderstood. Furthermore as an autonomous self-regulating profession, nursing has a responsibility to the public to provide understanding of nursing in the present and in the future, particularly when this relates to the care of families and the structure of health systems. Located within the qualitative research paradigm and utilising a narrative inquiry methodology, this study applies a 'supportive voice' to highlight the experience of five practice nurses, and in the process makes visible the dimensions of nursing work in New Zealand general practices. The five constructed narratives particularly draw attention to the complex nature of nursing work that practice nurses engage in daily, the importance of nurse-patient relationships and continuity of care and the significance of autonomous and specialty aspects of nursing practice. Ultimately, the value of the practice nurse in the day-to-day operation of general practice is brought to the fore.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The significant role of case managers in improving the health status of clients and in achieving cost-containment has been increasingly recognized. However, very few studies have touched on the emerging group of case managers who work exclusively with frail older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of overall job satisfaction and some of its determinants among case managers of the Visiting Nurse Health System, Atlanta, Georgia, working primarily with older adults in two community-based programs. The objectives were to learn: (1) the level of overall job satisfaction among these case managers; (2) how these case managers perceive their role; and (3) what factors facilitate their work, what factors present barriers to their job performance, and what policy or procedural changes they feel would improve their performance. An established job satisfaction scale was employed to assess job satisfaction among the case managers. The overall job satisfaction scores ranged from 109 to 198 (out of a maximum possible score of 216), with a mean of 158.2, which is considerably higher than the theoretical mid-point of the scale (126). Nine subscales of job satisfaction, ordered by the satisfaction level from highest to lowest were, Coworkers, Supervision, Nature of Work, Communication, Contingent Rewards, Fringe Benefits, Operating Conditions, Pay, and Promotion.