This paper reports on aspects of a study designed to answer the research questions: (i) To what extent do practice nurses use the five cyclical elements of a case management approach when caring for people aged over 75 years? (ii) What determines or deters practice nurses' use of the cyclical elements of a case management approach in caring for older people?
Case management is an approach that uses a cyclical process of assessment, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation to provide systematic proactive care to people with complex health and social care needs. In England, specialist practice nurse case managers for older people have been piloted in ten primary care trusts and the posts are to be implemented nationally by 2008. No baseline work has, however, considered the applicability of developing the existing generalist practice nurse workforce.
A 26-item structured postal questionnaire was used to explore both practice nurses' use of a case management approach when working with older people, and what factors influenced the care provided. A random sample of 500 practice nurses was selected from the Royal College of Nursing Practice Nurse Association member database.
A 45% response rate was achieved. Practice nurses assessed, planned and implemented care, but reviewing medication opportunistically and evaluating the care were uncommon. A case management approach was significantly (P = 0.005) more likely to be used in on-going management activities than in one-off treatment room care. Practice nurses with postregistration education in district nursing were significantly (P = 0.016) more likely to refer patients to social care services. Lack of time and the central role of the general practitioner were the main reasons for not incorporating case management into practice. CONCLUSIONS. The extent to which practice nurses used elements of a case management approach was highly variable and influenced by individual professional expertise, the nature of the consultation and the practice nurse's position in the general practice.
"The current study evaluates a novel personalised care approach using regular pro-active contact and follow-up and involving elements of case management. The term ‘case management’ was first used in the 1950s in the USA to describe the extended community services needed for discharged mental health patients, and has subsequently developed to become a widely-used approach for managing the care required by people with complex health and social care needs . It is a systematic proactive approach used to assess and organize care using a health professional (typically a nurse or social worker), the case manager, to work collaboratively with the patient to plan and monitor treatments and supports. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community studies reveal people with coronary heart disease (CHD) are twice as likely to be depressed as the general population and that this co-morbidity negatively affects the course and outcome of both conditions. There is evidence for the efficacy of collaborative care and case management for depression treatment, and whilst NICE guidelines recommend these approaches only where depression has not responded to psychological, pharmacological, or combined treatments, these care approaches may be particularly relevant to the needs of people with CHD and depression in the earlier stages of stepped care in primary care settings.
This pilot randomised controlled trial will evaluate whether a simple intervention involving a personalised care plan, elements of case management and regular telephone review is a feasible and acceptable intervention that leads to better mental and physical health outcomes for these patients. The comparator group will be usual general practitioner (GP) care.81 participants have been recruited from CHD registers of 15 South London general practices. Eligible participants have probable major depression identified by a score of ≥8 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale (HADS-D) together with symptomatic CHD identified using the Modified Rose Angina Questionnaire.Consenting participants are randomly allocated to usual care or the personalised care intervention which involves a comprehensive assessment of each participant's physical and mental health needs which are documented in a care plan, followed by regular telephone reviews by the case manager over a 6-month period. At each review, the intervention participant's mood, function and identified problems are reviewed and the case manager uses evidence based behaviour change techniques to facilitate achievement of goals specified by the patient with the aim of increasing the patient's self efficacy to solve their problems.Depressive symptoms measured by HADS score will be collected at baseline and 1, 6- and 12 months post randomisation. Other outcomes include CHD symptoms, quality of life, wellbeing and health service utilisation.
This practical and patient-focused intervention is potentially an effective and accessible approach to the health and social care needs of people with depression and CHD in primary care.
"However, evidence of the effectiveness of case management is arguably limited. Evans et al. (2005) identify that studies are often based in different care settings, have different drivers and lack a shared definition of case management, or the model is ill described. These limitations apply to the service model developed here, which is specific for the needs of the local community. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upton Surgery (Worcestershire) has developed a flexible and responsive service model that facilitates multi-agency support for adult patients with complex care needs experiencing an acute health crisis. The purpose of this service is to provide appropriate interventions that avoid unnecessary hospital admissions or, alternatively, provide support to facilitate early discharge from secondary care. Key aspects of this service are the collaborative and proactive identification of patients at risk, rapid creation and deployment of a reactive multi-agency team and follow-up of patients with an appropriate long-term care plan. A small team of dedicated staff (the Complex Care Team) are pivotal to coordinating and delivering this service. Key skills are sophisticated leadership and project management skills, and these have been used sensitively to challenge some traditional roles and boundaries in the interests of providing effective, holistic care for the patient.This is a practical example of early implementation of the principles underlying the Department of Health's (DH) recent Best Practice Guidance, 'Delivering Care Closer to Home' (DH, July 2008) and may provide useful learning points for other general practice surgeries considering implementing similar models. This integrated case management approach has had enthusiastic endorsement from patients and carers. In addition to the enhanced quality of care and experience for the patient, this approach has delivered value for money. Secondary care costs have been reduced by preventing admissions and also by reducing excess bed-days. The savings achieved have justified the ongoing commitment to the service and the staff employed in the Complex Care Team. The success of this service model has been endorsed recently by the 'Customer Care' award by 'Management in Practice'. The Surgery was also awarded the 'Practice of the Year' award for this and a number of other customer-focussed projects.
Primary Health Care Research & Development 04/2011; 12(2):95-111. DOI:10.1017/S1463423610000356
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significant role of case managers in improving the health status of clients and in achieving cost-containment has been increasingly recognized. However, very few studies have touched on the emerging group of case managers who work exclusively with frail older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of overall job satisfaction and some of its determinants among case managers of the Visiting Nurse Health System, Atlanta, Georgia, working primarily with older adults in two community-based programs. The objectives were to learn: (1) the level of overall job satisfaction among these case managers; (2) how these case managers perceive their role; and (3) what factors facilitate their work, what factors present barriers to their job performance, and what policy or procedural changes they feel would improve their performance. An established job satisfaction scale was employed to assess job satisfaction among the case managers. The overall job satisfaction scores ranged from 109 to 198 (out of a maximum possible score of 216), with a mean of 158.2, which is considerably higher than the theoretical mid-point of the scale (126). Nine subscales of job satisfaction, ordered by the satisfaction level from highest to lowest were, Coworkers, Supervision, Nature of Work, Communication, Contingent Rewards, Fringe Benefits, Operating Conditions, Pay, and Promotion.
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