Use of a tracheostomy speaking valve allows the expiratory flow of air to exit over the vocal folds promoting phonation. The purpose of this retrospective review was to determine: (1) what percentage of trial candidates tolerated a speaking valve; (2) whether candidates achieved phonation with a valve; and (3) which secondary benefits (coughing ability, secretion management, swallowing/feeding and oxygenation) could be clinically observed.
Twelve cases of children and youth (ages 8 months to 21 years) evaluated for a tracheostomy speaking valve at an inpatient rehabilitation hospital were reviewed. A speech-language pathologist and respiratory therapist evaluated the children for valve tolerance and candidacy for ongoing use. Clinical observations were used to determine phonation ability and to examine potential secondary benefits.
All 10 subjects who tolerated the valve achieved phonation. Vocalizations included audible crying, non-specific vocalizations, word approximations, single words and short phrases. Minimal-to-no improvement was noted for coughing, secretion management, swallowing and oxygenation with clinical assessment.
With supervision and training, speaking valves can enhance communication options for children and youth with tracheostomies and oxygen and ventilator dependence. Physiological and functional secondary benefits were observed but were more difficult to assess.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La prevalencia de niños con enfermedades respiratorias crónicas ha aumentado significativamente, este hecho requiere plantear nuevas alternativas de evaluación y manejo destinadas a mantener o aumentar la capacidad de desempeño físico y mejorar la calidad de vida. Estas guías tienen como objetivo entregar las bases y recomendaciones para un programa de rehabilitación pulmonar (RP) específico. Se mencionan criterios de inclusión y exclusión, rol de los profesionales que conforman el equipo de RP y las estrategias de evaluación, entrenamiento y seguimiento.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As medical and technological advances have made it possible to prolong the life of children with chronic respiratory failure, children are being referred to post-acute inpatient rehabilitation programmes. In these settings, children can be weaned from their ventilators and receive medical and rehabilitative care in a developmentally supportive environment at a lower financial cost than in an intensive care unit. There is strong evidence that weaning children from mechanical ventilation has beneficial effects on their functionality, ease of care and quality of life. There is, however, little scientific evidence describing how often successful weaning is achieved or the most effective methods. The purpose of this article is to present a consensus report detailing a structured approach to weaning children from mechanical ventilation in a post-acute care setting. This study proposes a Weaning Severity Index and a Weaning Algorithm for use in the assessment and implementation of the weaning process in post-acute rehabilitation. Future clinical studies are needed to validate the suggested approach to ventilator weaning and to determine whether or not the weaning algorithm results in beneficial patient outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term tracheostomy in infants and children is associated with significant morbidity. The majority of paediatric patients experience tracheostomy-related complications during cannulation and/or after decannulation. A large proportion of these complications are, however, preventable or may be minimised by good tracheostomy care and clinical evaluation of the patients at regular intervals, tailored to the needs of the individual child. By and large, infants and children benefit from a specialist tracheostomy service. In this article, we review different aspects of hospital-based care, covering a wide range of topics including the selection of tracheostomy tubes and adjuncts, clinical evaluation, speech/communication, and late complications and their prevention.
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