Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes recognized by the targeted population is critical for HIV-1 vaccine design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 Indian subjects at different stages of HIV-1 infection were tested for HIV-1 Gag-, Nef-, and Env-specific T cell responses by interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, using pools of overlapping peptides. The Gag and Nef antigens were targeted by 83% and 36% of responders. Five immunodominant regions, 4 in Gag and 1 in Nef, were identified in the study; these regions are conserved across clades, including the African subtype C clade. Three antigenic regions were also found to be recognized by CTLs of the study participants. These regions were not identified as immunodominant regions in studies performed in Africa, which highlights the importance of differential clustering of responses within HIV-1 subtype C. Twenty-six putative epitopes--15 Gag (10 in p24 and 5 in p17), 10 Nef, and 1 Env (gp 41)--were predicted using a combination of peptide matrix ELISPOT assay and CTL epitope-prediction software. Ninety percent of the predicted epitopes were clustered in the conserved immunodominant regions of the Gag and Nef antigens. Of 26 predicted epitopes, 8 were promiscuous, 3 of which were highly conserved across clades. Three Gag and 4 Nef epitopes were novel. The identification of conserved epitopes will be important in the planning of an HIV-1 vaccine strategy for subtype C-affected regions.
"Our data showed that the second half of p24 was the most immunodominant regions, followed by the first half of p17 regions. This finding is consistent with previous reports , , . We were concerned that the compatibility between OLP sequences and circulating Gag sequences may vary depending on the conservativeness and influence on the pattern of Gag CTL responses. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs) play a central role in controlling HIV-replication. Although numerous CTL epitopes have been described, most are in subtype B or C infection. Little is known about CTL responses in CRF01_AE infection. Gag CTL responses were investigated in a cohort of 137 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected Thai patients with high CD4+ T cell counts, using gIFN Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot) assays with 15-mer overlapping peptides (OLPs) derived from locally dominant CRF01_AE Gag sequences. 44 OLPs were recognized in 112 (81.8%) individuals. Both the breadth and magnitude of the CTL response, particularly against the p24 region, positively correlated with CD4+ T cell count and inversely correlated with HIV viral load. The breadth of OLP response was also associated with slower progression to antiretroviral therapy initiation. Statistical analysis and single peptide ELISpot assay identified at least 17 significant associations between reactive OLP and HLA in 12 OLP regions; 6 OLP-HLA associations (35.3%) were not compatible with previously reported CTL epitopes, suggesting that these contained new CTL Gag epitopes. A substantial proportion of CTL epitopes in CRF01_AE infection differ from subtype B or C. However, the pattern of protective CTL responses is similar; Gag CTL responses, particularly against p24, control viral replication and slow clinical progression.
PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e22680. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022680 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The T-cell response was measured using the IFN -g secretory ELISPOT assay as described previously. Briefly, ELISPOT plates (Millipore, USA: MAIPS 4510) were coated with 100 μl of 10 μg/ml of an anti-mouse IFN-g monoclonal antibody (Mabtech, Sweden, Cat No: 3321-3). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens from transmitted strains of HIV would prove crucial in vaccine designing for prevention of HIV infection. Immune response generated by Vaccinia construct expressing the HIV-1 gag gene from transmitted Indian HIV-1 subtype C strain (Vgag) in BALB/c mice is reported in the present study along with the identification of epitopes responsible for induction of the immune response.
The aim of this study was to determine immune response generated by the constructs in a mouse model and to understand the epitope specificities of the response.
This was an observational study carried out in BALB/c mice.
The immunogenecity of Vgag construct was evaluated in BALB/c mice after multiple immunizations. T-cell response was monitored by the interferon-γ ELISPOT assay using HIV-1 C Gag overlapping peptides and anti-P24 antibodies were estimated by ELISA.
Graphpad prism software was used for statistical analysis and for plotting graphs.
IFN-γ-secreting T cells and antibodies were detected against HIV Gag in mice after immunization. Although after repeated immunizations, antibody-mediated immune response increased or remained sustained, the magnitude of IFN-γ-secreting T cell was found to be decreased over time. The Gag peptides recognized by mice were mainly confined to the P24 region and had a considerable overlap with earlier reported immunodominant regions recognized by HIV-infected Indian patients.
Vaccinia construct with a gag gene from transmitted HIV-1 virus was found to be immunogenic. The Gag regions identified by mice could have important implications in terms of future HIV vaccine designing.
Journal of global infectious diseases 07/2011; 3(3):246-53. DOI:10.4103/0974-777X.83530
"However the presence and the intensity of CTL responses in chronic HIV infection did not show any correlation with the indicators of disease progression, CD4 count or plasma viral load. Thakar et al (Thakar et al 2005) demonstrated that the patients infected with HIV-1 C from India recognize the antigenic determinants from the same segments of Gag and Nef proteins that are recognized by the HIV-1 subtype C infected patients from South Africa and Botswana. This observation has implications in vaccine "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country.In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naive patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection.However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.
Journal of Biosciences 12/2008; 33(4):515-25. DOI:10.1007/s12038-008-0070-3 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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