Incidence of severe rotavirus diarrhea in New Delhi, India, and G and P types of the infecting rotavirus strains.
ABSTRACT A total of 62,475 children <5 years old from a defined population of approximately 500,000 children and adults from slums in New Delhi, India, were assessed for 1 year by means of passive surveillance, to identify children who were hospitalized for diarrhea. The incidence of severe rotavirus diarrhea was estimated, and the G and P types of the infecting rotavirus strains were determined and were correlated with the clinical severity of diarrhea. Of 584 children who were hospitalized with diarrhea, 137 (23.5%) had rotavirus detected in stool specimens (incidence of rotavirus diarrhea-associated hospitalizations, 337 hospitalizations/100,000 children <5 years of age). Most cases of diarrhea (98%) occurred during the first 2 years of life, peaking at 9-11 months of age. Rotavirus-associated diarrhea occurred year-round but was predominant in winter. Among the strains that could be G-typed, G1 was the most common serotype, followed by G9 and G2; 10% of cases of diarrhea were due to mixed G-type infections. Common strains identified in the present surveillance study were PG1, PG2, PG9, PG1, PG9, and PG3. Children infected with G1 strains had a greater risk of developing more-severe cases of diarrhea than did children infected with other rotavirus strains (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.67).
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ABSTRACT: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in young children worldwide and is responsible for around 100,000 deaths in India annually. Vaccination against rotavirus (RV) is a high priority: ‘ROTAVAC’ an indigenous vaccine will soon be licensed in India. Surveillance to determine the impact of vaccines on emerging RV strains is required. In this study we compared the pattern of RV strains circulating in Delhi over a 5 year period with the strains over the past 12 years. The most commonly detected G genotypes were G1 (22.4%), G2 (17.2%), and G9 (25.2%) with P (25.5%), P (20%) and P (16.9%) specificity. G12 genotype was found to be the fourth common G-type with 14.8% prevalence. Among the G–P combinations; G1P, G2P, G9P and G12P were detected at 7.2%, 7.2%, 5.2% and 10%, respectively. Of note, G9P and G2P that were rarely detected during 2000–2007 in Delhi, were observed quite frequently with prevalence of 6.5% and 3.4%, respectively. In total, 16 different G–P combinations were detected in the present study demonstrating the rich diversity of rotavirus strains in Delhi. Our data from the 12 year period indicate wide circulation of G1 and G9 genotypes in combination with P, G2 with P and G12 with P with high frequency of RV strains having rare G–P combinations in Delhi. Since the indigenous vaccine ‘ROTAVAC’ has a monovalent formulation, the impact of vaccines on strains and the effect of strain diversity on the efficacy of the vaccine should be monitored.Vaccine 08/2014; 32:A62–A67. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.005 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in outpatient setting in India is not fully understood. A prospective study was undertaken to describe RVGE among Indian children less than 5 years of age presenting in outpatient departments with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). This study was conducted at 11 outpatient departments (OPDs) of private pediatric clinics in urban areas of India. A total of 605 eligible children were enrolled at OPDs. Stool samples of the subjects were collected and tested for presence of rotavirus antigen by enzyme immune assay (EIA) and were typed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Physician examined the children and documented the disease particulars. In addition, parents/guardians were interviewed for AGE related symptoms, health care utilization and cost incurred due to AGE, and parental stress associated with AGE. After OPD, parents/guardians completed diary cards and questionnaires to capture the information for 14 days following the enrollment.Vaccine 08/2014; 32:A36–A44. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.070 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although several studies show the vulnerability of human health to climate change, a clear comprehensive quantification of the increased health risks attributable to climate change is lacking. Even more complicated are assessments of adaptation measures for this sector. We discuss the impact of climate change on diarrhoea as a representative of a waterborne infectious disease affecting human health in the Ganges basin of northern India. A conceptual framework is presented for climate exposure response relationships based on studies from different countries, as empirical studies and appropriate epidemiological data sets for India are lacking. Four climate variables are included: temperature, increased/extreme precipitation, decreased precipitation/droughts and relative humidity. Applying the conceptual framework to the latest regional climate projections for northern India shows increases between present and future (2040s), varying spatially from no change to an increase of 21% in diarrhoea incidences, with 13.1% increase on average for the Ganges basin. We discuss three types of measures against diarrhoeal disease: reactive actions, preventive actions and national policy options. Preventive actions have the potential to counterbalance this expected increase. However, given the limited progress in reducing incidences over the past decade consorted actions and effective implementation and integration of existing policies are needed.Science of The Total Environment 08/2013; 468. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.021 · 4.10 Impact Factor