Tight junctions, leaky intestines, and pediatric diseases.
ABSTRACT Tight junctions (TJs) represent the major barrier within the paracellular pathway between intestinal epithelial cells. Disruption of TJs leads to intestinal hyperpermeability (the so-called "leaky gut") and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic pediatric disease entities that are likely to have their origin during infancy.
This review provides an overview of evidence for the role of TJ breakdown in diseases such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, allergies, asthma, and autism.
A better basic understanding of this structure might lead to prevention or treatment of these diseases using nutritional or other means.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine influence of bacteria and herbal applications of Lonicerae Flos on the permeability of intestinal epithelial cells. The HCT-116 human intestinal cell was used as an in vivo model of "leaky gut". Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) was used to induce an increase in the permeability of epithelial cell tight junctions. Probiotics including Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salomonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were used to evaluate bacterial influence on the intestinal epithelial cells. Herbal extract Lonicerae Flos was also assessed to find out what kind of effects it has when used alone or fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum. The permeability of intestinal cell lines was assessed using transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxide (HRP) assessments. This data provides evidence for the probiotic benefits of intestinal permeability. The data also provides promising evidence of herbal effects on reducing intestinal permeability, especially when fermented with probiotics.Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 07/2012; 41(7). DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.7.881
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ABSTRACT: Development of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), including autism, is based on a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Recent data propose the etiopathogenetic role of intestinal microflora in autism. The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in fecal microbiota in children with autism and determine its role in the development of often present gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and possibly other manifestations of autism in Slovakia. The fecal microflora of 10 children with autism, 9 siblings and 10 healthy children was investigated by real-time PCR. The fecal microbiota of autistic children showed a significant decrease of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and elevation of the amount of Lactobacillus spp. Our results also showed a trend in the incidence of elevated Desulfovibrio spp. in children with autism reaffirmed by a very strong association of the amount of Desulfovibrio spp. with the severity of autism in the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) restricted/repetitive behavior subscale score. The participants in our study demonstrated strong positive correlation of autism severity with the severity of GI dysfunction. Probiotic diet supplementation normalized the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Desulfovibrio spp. and the amount of Bifidobacterium spp. in feces of autistic children. We did not find any correlation between plasma levels of oxytocin, testosterone, DHEA-S and fecal microbiota, which would suggest their combined influence on autism development. This pilot study suggests the role of gut microbiota in autism as a part of the “gut-brain” axis and it is a basis for further investigation of the combined effect of microbial, genetic, and hormonal changes for development and clinical manifestation of autism.Physiology & Behavior 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.10.033 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intestinal exposure to gliadin leads to zonulin upregulation and consequent disassembly of intercellular tight junctions and increased intestinal permeability. We aimed to study response to gliadin exposure, in terms of barrier function and cytokine secretion, using intestinal biopsies obtained from four groups: celiac patients with active disease (ACD), celiac patients in remission (RCD), non-celiac patients with gluten sensitivity (GS) and non-celiac controls (NC). Ex-vivo human duodenal biopsies were mounted in microsnapwells and luminally incubated with either gliadin or media alone. Changes in transepithelial electrical resistance were monitored over 120 min. Media was subsequently collected and cytokines quantified. Intestinal explants from all groups (ACD (n = 6), RCD (n = 6), GS (n = 6), and NC (n = 5)) demonstrated a greater increase in permeability when exposed to gliadin vs. media alone. The increase in permeability in the ACD group was greater than in the RCD and NC groups. There was a greater increase in permeability in the GS group compared to the RCD group. There was no difference in permeability between the ACD and GS groups, between the RCD and NC groups, or between the NC and GS groups. IL-10 was significantly greater in the media of the NC group compared to the RCD and GS groups. Increased intestinal permeability after gliadin exposure occurs in all individuals. Following gliadin exposure, both patients with gluten sensitivity and those with active celiac disease demonstrate a greater increase in intestinal permeability than celiacs in disease remission. A higher concentration of IL-10 was measured in the media exposed to control explants compared to celiac disease in remission or gluten sensitivity.Nutrients 03/2015; 7(3):1565-76. DOI:10.3390/nu7031565 · 3.15 Impact Factor