The Surgeon General and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that multiple bouts of exercise can be accumulated throughout the day in lieu of the more traditional single, longer bout of exercise. Yet, conclusive evidence does not exist suggesting these 2 training modes provide similar health-related benefits on metabolic control, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist in glucose control when preceded by one 30-minute or three 10-minute bouts of exercise in women with type 2 diabetes. Nine individuals with type 2 diabetes (53 +/- 6 years old) and 6 control women (49 +/- 4 years old) completed 3 randomly ordered oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs). Two of the OGTTs were preceded the day prior by moderate exercise (approximately 60% of Vo2peak), either one 30-minute or three 10-minute bouts, whereas the third OGTT was used as a control day with no exercise performed 3 days prior. Glucose and insulin were measured every 30 minutes for 4 hours during the OGTT. Individuals with type 2 diabetes exhibited a greater overall glucose response than the controls (P < .05), but the glucose response to the OGTT was not different between the 3 conditions within each group (2-hour glucose: multiple bout, 14.3 +/- 3.2 vs 5.0 +/- 1.7; single bout, 14.1 +/- 3.0 vs 4.7 +/- 1.5; control day, 14.6 +/- 2.7 vs 4.9 +/- 4.9 mmol/L). Glucose area under the curve analysis resulted in similar findings. As expected, the group with type 2 diabetes had greater fasting insulin levels compared with the control group for all exercise conditions (multiple bout: 4.5 +/- 1.2 vs 0.3 +/- 0.2; single bout: 6.4 +/- 1.6 vs 0.9 +/- 0.4; control day: 5.7 +/- 1.8 vs 1.5 +/- 0.6 pmol/L; P < .05). Exercise or no exercise did not alter the insulin response to the OGTT for either group. Despite a higher glucose response to the glucose load in T2D, an acute exercise bout (single or multiple bouts) did not appear to alter glucose control the following day in either the individuals with type 2 diabetes or the control group.
"In healthy individuals, postprandial glucose tolerance has been shown to be increased, unchanged, or decreased in the hours after a single bout of aerobic exercise (Nazar et al. 1987; Pestell et al. 1993; King et al. 1995; Bonen et al. 1998; Rose et al. 2001; Roberts et al. 2013). In contrast , in prediabetic and T2D subjects postprandial glucose tolerance after a single bout of exercise has been found to be improved in some studies (Nazar et al. 1987; Oberlin et al. 2014; Rynders et al. 2014), while unchanged in others (Rogers et al. 1988; Larsen et al. 1997; Baynard et al. 2005; Venables et al. 2007), but a deterioration of oral glucose tolerance immediately following exercise has never been found. As such, it appears that the immediate effect of a single bout of exercise on postprandial plasma glucose levels differ between healthy and diabetic subpopulations suggesting that it may be dependent on the subject's underlying glycemic state. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2, P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-13C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg−1 min−1) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; RaOGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, RaOGTT, and Rd (all P < 0.0001) in all groups with a tendency for a greater (~20%) peak RaOGTT value in NGT subjects when compared to IGT and T2D subjects. Accordingly, following exercise, the plasma glucose concentration during the OGTT was increased in NGT subjects (P < 0.05), while unchanged in subjects with IGT and T2D. In conclusion, while a single bout of moderate-intensity exercise increased the postprandial glucose response in NGT subjects, glucose tolerance following exercise was preserved in the two hyperglycemic groups. Thus, postprandial plasma glucose responses immediately following exercise are dependent on the underlying degree of glycemic control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effect of glucose ingestion on cardiac autonomic function in nonobese women and obese women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Heart rate variability was measured via continuous electrocardiogram, and beat-by-beat blood pressure was recorded using finger photoplethysmography (Portapres, TNO Biomedical Instrumentation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) in a fasted state and in response to a 75-g glucose load in 42 middle-aged women (40-60 years). Upright tilt was also used as an orthostatic stress to provide a clinically relevant challenge to the cardiovascular system. Significant main effects for log-transformed (Ln) total power (TP, square milliseconds) were observed with upright tilt (P < .01) and glucose challenge (P < .05). LnTP decreased in all groups in both the fasted and fed state with upright tilt (P < .01), but glucose ingestion resulted in higher LnTP in the supine position only (P = .008). Tilt resulted in a significant main effect for low-frequency (LFnu, calculated in normalized units) and high-frequency (HFnu, calculated in normalized units) power (P < .000), whereas the glucose challenge had no effect on LFnu or HFnu power. LFnu approached significance for group differences (P = .07), such that the nonobese had lower LF power than either of the obese groups. Sympathovagal balance (LnLF/HF ratio) was affected by position (P < .000) and group (P < .05), with a lower LnLF/HF in the nonobese than in the obese women. Baroreceptor sensitivity decreased (P < .01) during upright tilt but was not changed by the glucose challenge. In conclusion, basal sympathovagal balance is higher in obese individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus showed no differences in autonomic function with an orthostatic challenge or glucose load than nondiabetic, obese women. The glucose load did alter total spectral power in all of these middle-aged women but had no impact on baroreceptor sensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated and compared the effects on glycaemic control of two different exercise protocols in elderly men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Eighteen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus carried out home-based bicycle training for 5 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two training programmes at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake: three 10 min sessions per day (3 x 10) or one 30 min session per day (1 x 30). Plasma insulin, C-peptide and glucose concentrations were measured during a 3 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity index (ISI(composite)), pre-hepatic insulin secretion rates (ISR) and change in insulin secretion per unit change in glucose concentrations (B(total)) were calculated.
Cardiorespiratory fitness increased in response to training in both groups. In group 3 x 10 (n = 9) fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.01), 120 min glucose OGTT (p = 0.04) and plasma glucose concentration areas under the curve at 120 min (p < 0.04) and 180 min (p = 0.07) decreased. These parameters remained unchanged in group 1 x 30 (n = 9). No significant changes were found in ISI(composite), ISR and B(total) in either of the exercise groups. In a matched time-control group (n = 10), glycaemic control did not change.
Moderate to high-intensity training performed at 3 x 10 min/day is preferable to 1 x 30 min/day with regard to effects on glycaemic control. This is in spite of the fact that cardiorespiratory fitness increased similarly in both exercise groups. A possible explanation is that the energy expenditure associated with multiple short daily sessions may be greater than that in a single daily session.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.