Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Carcinomas in Patients Operated on for Renal Hyperparathyroidism: Experience with 339 Consecutive Patients and Review of the Literature
ABSTRACT The association between renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma is discussed. To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors, we performed a retrospective analysis of our patients (1998-2004) and compared the data with the data from other surgical and autopsy studies. At our hospital, a total of 347 parathyroidectomies in 339 patients with renal HPT were performed. Most patients underwent preoperative ultrasound investigation of the thyroid gland and, if indicate, thyroid scintigraphy. Intraoperatively, both thyroid lobes were mobilized and palpated. Detected thyroid nodules were adequately resected and investigated histologically. A systematic analysis of the international literature was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE system to identify publications on the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with renal HPT and in the overall population. Altogether, 133 patients (39.2%) underwent simultaneous thyroid surgery. The initial operation was hemithyroidectomy in 55 (16.2%), Dunhill operation in 36 (10.6%), unilateral subtotal resection in 17 (5.0%), bilateral subtotal resection in 5 (1.5%), and enucleation of a thyroid nodule in 18 (5.3%). A PTC was found in 8 of 339 patients (2.4%) and a follicular thyroid carcinoma in 1. Among 311 patients with primary cervical operation, 6 (1.9%) had a papillary thyroid carcinoma. All papillary tumors were classified as pT1 with a diameter of 1 to 12 mm; three were bifocal, and only one patient had positive lymph nodes. None of the analyzed factors showed a significant correlation with the occurrence of thyroid carcinoma. Depending on the screening method, the prevalence of occult PTC in European autopsy studies ranged from 5% to 9% and was markedly higher in almost all studies than in the present one. The prevalence of PTC in the present study makes an etiologic association between renal HPT and PTC unlikely. The clinical significance of these tumors remains unclear because all incidental tumors were small. However, if easily and safely feasible, relevant thyroid nodules should be removed during parathyroid surgery.
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- "It is of interest that the frequency of concomitant thyroid malignancy is lower than that in other studies. This could be explained partly by the fact that the relatively rarer use of neck irradiation therapy in China than in western country (Seehofer et al., 2005). On the other hand, Wagner et al.(1999) reported if all patients with thyroid diseases (13387 cases) were screened for PHPT, the frequency would be higher (55.5%). "
ABSTRACT: The coexistence of thyroid diseases with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) can present a challenge in the clinical diagnosis and management for these patients. This study aims to determine the frequency of coexisting thyroid gland lesions in a consecutive series patients with PHPT, and to analyze the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Twenty-two cases of a total of 52 PHPT patients who had synchronous thyroid and parathyroid pathology were surgically managed in this study. Thirteen patients had ipsilateral thyroid nodules, and 9 patients had thyroid nodules in contralateral or bilateral side. Seven patients underwent direct parathyroidectomy and hemithyroidectomy via a mini-incision (about 3 cm), while other 15 procedures were converted to Kocher incision. Seventeen nodular goiter (32.7%), 2 thyroiditis (3.8%), 2 thyroid adenoma (3.8%) and 1 thyroid carcinoma (1.9%) coexisting with parathyroid adenoma were pathologically diagnosed. The sensitivity of preoperative ultrasonography (US) and methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy for parathyroid lesions was 63.6% and 85.7%; and the overall positive predictive values for MIBI and US were 100% and 95.5% respectively. A high incidence of thyroid diseases that coexisted with PHPT in literatures was briefly reviewed. Our study illustrated the need for clinical awareness of concomitant PHPT and thyroid disease. A combination of US, computed tomography (CT) and MIBI scintigraphy would be recommended for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid adenoma and for evaluation of thyroid lesions. Synchronous treatment of associated thyroid abnormalities is desirable, and open minimally invasive surgical approach with additional resection of isolated ipsilateral thyroid nodules is possible in some of these patients.Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 10/2007; 8(9):626-31. DOI:10.1631/jzus.2007.B0626 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This is the case of a 54-year-old woman who had a pathological fracture of the left femoral neck, in the area of a brown tumor. A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) was made based on the findings of: hypercalcemia, high serum levels of parathohormone, and the presence of a parathyroid adenoma of the lower right parathyroid in the gammagraphic image. The patient also has a brown bone tumor in the left femoral neck, a pathologic fracture of the right clavicle, chronic renal insufficiency and arterial hypertension. A lower right parathyroidec- tomy was made. After this procedure the patient developed hungry bone syndrome. During the surgical procedure a thyroid nodule was found in the contralateral side from the parathyroid
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ABSTRACT: Based on fuzzy approximation principle, a new fuzzy controller is designed for a class of nonlinear similar composite large-scale systems with unknown dynamics. It uses the mode transformation function to realize the switching between the fuzzy indirect adaptive controller and fuzzy sliding mode controller, which keeps the state of the system changing in a close bounded set. It also makes the closed loop system stable by using Lyapunov method and keeps the tracking error convergence to zero. Through an adaptive process of a parameter online, the affection of interconnected terms, which satisfy certain general restrict conditions, is attenuated. Simultaneously, it can be proved that making good use of the characteristic of the systems such as "similarity", "symmetry" to study the tracking problem will simplify the complex problem.American Control Conference, 2002. Proceedings of the 2002; 02/2002