Prevalence of thyroid nodules and carcinomas in patients operated on for renal hyperparathyroidism: experience with 339 consecutive patients and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT The association between renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma is discussed. To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors, we performed a retrospective analysis of our patients (1998-2004) and compared the data with the data from other surgical and autopsy studies. At our hospital, a total of 347 parathyroidectomies in 339 patients with renal HPT were performed. Most patients underwent preoperative ultrasound investigation of the thyroid gland and, if indicate, thyroid scintigraphy. Intraoperatively, both thyroid lobes were mobilized and palpated. Detected thyroid nodules were adequately resected and investigated histologically. A systematic analysis of the international literature was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE system to identify publications on the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with renal HPT and in the overall population. Altogether, 133 patients (39.2%) underwent simultaneous thyroid surgery. The initial operation was hemithyroidectomy in 55 (16.2%), Dunhill operation in 36 (10.6%), unilateral subtotal resection in 17 (5.0%), bilateral subtotal resection in 5 (1.5%), and enucleation of a thyroid nodule in 18 (5.3%). A PTC was found in 8 of 339 patients (2.4%) and a follicular thyroid carcinoma in 1. Among 311 patients with primary cervical operation, 6 (1.9%) had a papillary thyroid carcinoma. All papillary tumors were classified as pT1 with a diameter of 1 to 12 mm; three were bifocal, and only one patient had positive lymph nodes. None of the analyzed factors showed a significant correlation with the occurrence of thyroid carcinoma. Depending on the screening method, the prevalence of occult PTC in European autopsy studies ranged from 5% to 9% and was markedly higher in almost all studies than in the present one. The prevalence of PTC in the present study makes an etiologic association between renal HPT and PTC unlikely. The clinical significance of these tumors remains unclear because all incidental tumors were small. However, if easily and safely feasible, relevant thyroid nodules should be removed during parathyroid surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid Neoplasms, papillary and follicular carcinomas, are a heterogeneous group of tumors, which combined make up almost 95% of all endocrine tumors and accounts for about 1% of all malignancies. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is associated with the expression of multiple cell proliferating markers such as Ki-67/MIB-1, cyclin D1, p27, which were linked to the biological features and clinical behavior of the tumors. It is important to determine prognostic factors for survival in patients with clinical recurrence of PTMC, to more clearly determine optimal management regimens. Emerging epidemiological and clinical evidences suggest that Ki-67/MIB-1 may positivity confers a higher risk of recurrence and a worse survival in patients with PTC. This leads to the hypothesis that, it is possible to use Ki-67/MIB-1 as a prognostic marker in the thyroid tumors especially in papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma, and defined its index values closed to the papillary thyroid carcinoma as a cutoff for detection of the tumor recurrence. It is our hope that use this genes as a defined marker of cell proliferation to better understand cancer pathogenesis to prevent the recurrence or to improve the survival, and ultimately to expand therapeutics.Medical Hypotheses 01/2013; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: About 100 000 thyroid operations are performed in Germany each year. There is a current trend toward more radical surgery for bilateral euthyroid nodular goiter. In recent years, thyroid specialists and specialty guidelines have recommended total thyroidectomy, because it ensures that nodules will not recur and already provides an adequately radical excision in case an incidental carcinoma is found postoperatively on histological study of the specimen. An alternative method is unilateral hemithyroidectomy with contralateral subtotal resection (the Dunhill procedure). Selective literature review. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared the longterm outcomes of different surgical methods. In addition, retrospective studies have been published, but their findings must be interpreted with caution because of limitations of method. When all of the data are considered, it appears that radical procedures are often not justified. According to the RCTs, nodules arose during long-term follow-up in 4.7-14% of patients who had undergone subtotal resection; yet, in the two more recent and methodologically more valid RCTs, surgery for recurrent goiter was needed in only 0-0.5% of patients treated with a Dunhill procedure and given adequate hormone supplementation. Most incidental carcinomas are papillary microcarcinomas; this entity is usually adequately treated with hemithyroidectomy. The reported complication rates of total thyroidectomy for permanent hypoparathyroidism in particular range from 0.5% (in specialized centers) to 10% (in a cross-sectional study) and thus seem higher than the corresponding rate for a Dunhill procedure (1-2%). Total thyroidectomy has significant risks and should only be performed if the indication has been critically assessed. Alternative methods such as the Dunhill procedure are often radical enough with a much lower rate of postoperative hypoparathyroidism; they remain an important option in thyroid surgery. Further RCTs with sufficient long-term follow-up are needed so that the different surgical methods can be reliably compared in detail.Deutsches Ärzteblatt International 03/2014; 111(10):171-8. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Renal hyperparathyroidism usually occurs in chronic renal failure patients on regular dialysis. However, renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands is an uncommon condition. We herein present the case of a 35-year-old woman who has been on hemodialysis for 20 years. She had renal hyperparathyroidism with generalized weakness and bone pain for 2 years. The patient initially underwent parathyroidectomy at a local institution, during which two large parathyroid glands were resected from the right side (no parathyroid glands were found on the left side); however, the surgical procedure was unsuccessful, and the patient had persistent renal hyperparathyroidism after the operation. She was then transferred to our hospital and ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were localized by neck ultrasonography and technetium-99m sestamibi scans with single-photon emission computed tomography imaging preoperatively. A left thyroid lobectomy was performed and two intrathyroidal parathyroid glands were found. The patient recovered uneventfully and her symptoms resolved. Therefore, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of renal hyperparathyroidism resulting from intrathyroidal parathyroid glands in cases where the renal hyperparathyroidism persists after parathyroidectomy.Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 01/2014; · 0.75 Impact Factor