Prevalence of thyroid nodules and carcinomas in patients operated on for renal hyperparathyroidism: experience with 339 consecutive patients and review of the literature.
ABSTRACT The association between renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and differentiated thyroid carcinoma is discussed. To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors, we performed a retrospective analysis of our patients (1998-2004) and compared the data with the data from other surgical and autopsy studies. At our hospital, a total of 347 parathyroidectomies in 339 patients with renal HPT were performed. Most patients underwent preoperative ultrasound investigation of the thyroid gland and, if indicate, thyroid scintigraphy. Intraoperatively, both thyroid lobes were mobilized and palpated. Detected thyroid nodules were adequately resected and investigated histologically. A systematic analysis of the international literature was performed using the PubMed/MEDLINE system to identify publications on the prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients with renal HPT and in the overall population. Altogether, 133 patients (39.2%) underwent simultaneous thyroid surgery. The initial operation was hemithyroidectomy in 55 (16.2%), Dunhill operation in 36 (10.6%), unilateral subtotal resection in 17 (5.0%), bilateral subtotal resection in 5 (1.5%), and enucleation of a thyroid nodule in 18 (5.3%). A PTC was found in 8 of 339 patients (2.4%) and a follicular thyroid carcinoma in 1. Among 311 patients with primary cervical operation, 6 (1.9%) had a papillary thyroid carcinoma. All papillary tumors were classified as pT1 with a diameter of 1 to 12 mm; three were bifocal, and only one patient had positive lymph nodes. None of the analyzed factors showed a significant correlation with the occurrence of thyroid carcinoma. Depending on the screening method, the prevalence of occult PTC in European autopsy studies ranged from 5% to 9% and was markedly higher in almost all studies than in the present one. The prevalence of PTC in the present study makes an etiologic association between renal HPT and PTC unlikely. The clinical significance of these tumors remains unclear because all incidental tumors were small. However, if easily and safely feasible, relevant thyroid nodules should be removed during parathyroid surgery.
Article: Epidemiology of thyroid nodules.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are common and are commonly benign. The reported prevalence of nodular thyroid disease depends on the population studied and the methods used to detect nodules. Nodule incidence increases with age, and is increased in women, in people with iodine deficiency, and after radiation exposure. Numerous studies suggest a prevalence of 2-6% with palpation, 19-35% with ultrasound, and 8-65% in autopsy data. With widespread use of sensitive imaging in clinical practice, incidental thyroid nodules are being discovered with increasing frequency. Ultrasonography is the most accurate and cost-effective method for evaluating and observing thyroid nodules. Current ultrasonography machines are relatively inexpensive, sensitive, and easy to operate. Most endocrinologists are now using ultrasound examination in the initial evaluation of a patient with known or suspected thyroid nodule. The management of thyroid incidentalomas is a matter of controversy.Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism 01/2009; 22(6):901-11. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnant women is a rare antenatal complication. Maternal symptoms include nephrolithiasis, bone disease, pancreatitis, hyperemesis, muscle weakness, mental status changes, and hypercalcemic crisis. Fetal complications comprise intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, postpartum neonatal titanic crisis, and permanent hypoparathyroidism. A 23-year-old gravida was referred to our clinic with severe hyperemesis and weight loss at 32 gestational weeks. She was diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism because of parathyroid adenoma and treated with surgery where a synchronous thyroid papillary carcinoma was detected. After right parathyroidectomy and right subtotal lobectomy of the thyroid, the patient was stable and laboratory and clinical findings normalized. The fetus' state was monitored via reassuring non-stress cardiotocography and repeated sonographic exams until birth. Delivery was induced at 35 weeks of gestation because of preeclampsia. Parathyroid adenoma in pregnancy is a rare maternal condition with potential impact on the advancing pregnancy. Generally, a surgical approach is recommended with thorough inspection of the thyroid gland so that any irregular structure might be removed during the same surgical intervention for diagnostic reasons. In this reported case, a coexistent papillary carcinoma of the thyroid was detected accidentally and removed successfully.Archives of Gynecology 07/2011; 284(1):91-4. · 0.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIM: Parathyroid surgery has undergone a paradigm shift over the last decade, with a move from traditional bilateral neck exploration to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP), and increasing reliance on pre- and intra-operative localization of overactive glands. We aimed to assess changing surgical practices and their impact on the management of parathyroid disease in a tertiary referral centre in the West of Ireland. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of those patients undergoing a surgical intervention for parathyroid disease in the period between 1999 and 2009 in our centre was carried out. Data was analysed using PASW (v18) software. RESULTS: 248 procedures were performed, increasing from an annual rate of 6 in 1999 to 45 in 2009. 129 procedures were completed by minimally invasive means, following the introduction of MIP in 2003. Single-gland disease accounted for 87% of cases (n = 216) with carcinomas in 2 patients (0.8%). Pre-operative localization had disappointing diagnostic value, with high false negative rates for both ultrasound (37.3%) and Sestamibi Scanning (35.81%). Intra-operative adjuncts were more helpful, with intra-operative Parathyroid hormone monitoring facilitating curative resection of adenomas in 94.03% at 10 min. Median length of post-operative stay has significantly decreased from 6 days in 1999 to 1 night only in 2009 (p < 0.01, ANOVA). Those patients undergoing MIP had shorter stay than the open group (1.71 days -v-4.73, p = 0.003,t-test). CONCLUSION: The practice in our centre has shifted to a less invasive approach. Increased utilisation of intra-operative adjuncts has facilitated this change, and resulted in favourable changes in length of stay, extent of dissection, and number of patients treated.The surgeon: journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland 11/2011; · 1.97 Impact Factor