Evidence for complex multigenic inheritance of radiation AML susceptibility in mice revealed using a surrogate phenotypic assay.
ABSTRACT The mapping of genes which affect individual cancer risk is an important but complex challenge. A surrogate assay of susceptibility to radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in the mouse based on chromosomal radiosensitivity has been developed and validated. This assay was applied to the mapping of radiation-induced AML risk modifier loci by association with microsatellite markers. A region on chromosome (chr) 18 with strong association is identified and confirmed by backcross analysis. Additional loci on chrs 8 and 13 show significant association. A key candidate gene Rbbp8 on chr18 is identified. Rbbp8 is shown to be upregulated in response to X-irradiation in the AML sensitive CBA strain but not AML resistant C57BL/6 strain. This study demonstrates the strength of utilizing surrogate endpoints of cancer susceptibility in the mapping of mouse loci and identifies additional loci that may affect radiation cancer risk.
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ABSTRACT: Estimates of cancer risks posed to space-flight crews by exposure to high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) ions are subject to considerable uncertainty because epidemiological data do not exist for human populations exposed to similar radiation qualities. We assessed the carcinogenic effects of 300 MeV/n 28Si or 600 MeV/n 56Fe ions in a mouse model for radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. C3H/HeNCrl mice were irradiated with 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 1 Gy of 300 MeV/n 28Si ions, 600 MeV/n 56Fe ions or 1 or 2 Gy of protons simulating the 1972 solar particle event (1972SPE) at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Additional mice were irradiated with 137Cs gamma rays at doses of 1, 2, or 3 Gy. All groups were followed until they were moribund or reached 800 days of age. We found that 28Si or 56Fe ions do not appear to be substantially more effective than gamma rays for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia. However, 28Si or 56Fe ion irradiated mice had a much higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma than gamma ray irradiated or proton irradiated mice. These data demonstrate a clear difference in the effects of these HZE ions on the induction of leukemia compared to solid tumors, suggesting potentially different mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Also seen in this study was an increase in metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the 28Si and 56Fe ion irradiated mice compared with those exposed to gamma rays or 1972SPE protons, a finding with important implications for setting radiation exposure limits for space-flight crew members.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104819. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104819 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transcription factor PU.1, encoded by the murine Sfpi1 gene (SPI1 in humans), is a member of the Ets transcription factor family and plays a vital role in commitment and maturation of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Murine studies directly link primary acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and decreased PU.1 expression in specifically modified strains. Similarly, a radiation-induced chromosome 2 deletion and subsequent Sfpi1 point mutation in the remaining allele lead to murine radiation-induced AML. Consistent with murine data, heterozygous deletion of the SPI1 locus and mutation of the -14 kilobase SPI1 upstream regulatory element were previously described in human primary AML, although they are rare events. Other mechanisms linked to PU.1 downregulation in human AML include TP53 deletion, Flt3-ITD mutation and the recurrent AML1-ETO [t(8;21)] and PML-RARA [t(15;17)] translocations. This review provides an up-to-date overview on our current understanding of the involvement of PU.1 in the initiation and development of radiation-induced AML, together with recommendations for future murine and human studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.Carcinogenesis 03/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgv016 · 5.27 Impact Factor