Insulin modulates hippocampal activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase-dependent manner.
ABSTRACT Insulin and its receptor are both present in the central nervous system and are implicated in neuronal survival and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here we show that insulin activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB), and results in an induction of long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 neurones. Evaluation of the frequency-response curve of synaptic plasticity revealed that insulin induced LTD at 0.033 Hz and LTP at 10 Hz, whereas in the absence of insulin, 1 Hz induced LTD and 100 Hz induced LTP. LTD induction in the presence of insulin required low frequency synaptic stimulation (0.033 Hz) and blockade of GABAergic transmission. The LTD or LTP induced in the presence of insulin was N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor specific as it could be inhibited by alpha-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), a specific NMDA receptor antagonist. LTD induction was also facilitated by lowering the extracellular Mg(2+) concentration, indicating an involvement of NMDA receptors. Inhibition of PI3K signalling or discontinuing synaptic stimulation also prevented this LTD. These results show that insulin modulates activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which requires activation of NMDA receptors and the PI3K pathway. The results obtained provide a mechanistic link between insulin and synaptic plasticity, and explain how insulin functions as a neuromodulator.
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ABSTRACT: Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.Diabetes 06/2014; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic, analgesic, or sedative in pediatric patients. We reported that ketamine alters the normal neurogenesis of rat fetal neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the developing brain, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The PI3K-PKB/Akt (phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B) signaling pathway plays many important roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and proliferation. We hypothesized that PI3K-PKB/Akt signaling may be involved in ketamine-altered neurogenesis of cultured NSPCs in vitro. NSPCs were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rat fetuses on gestational day 17. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, Ki67 staining, and differentiation tests were utilized to identify primary cultured NSPCs. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect Akt expression, whereas Western blots measured phosphorylated Akt and p27 expression in NSPCs exposed to different treatments. We report that cultured NSPCs had properties of neurogenesis: proliferation and neural differentiation. PKB/Akt was expressed in cultured rat fetal cortical NSPCs. Ketamine inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and further enhanced p27 expression in cultured NSPCs. All ketamine-induced PI3K/Akt signaling changes could be recovered by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist, NMDA. These data suggest that the inhibition of PI3K/Akt-p27 signaling may be involved in ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in the developing brain, whereas excitatory NMDA receptor activation may reverse these effectsBirth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 09/2014; · 1.97 Impact Factor