Insulin modulates hippocampal activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in a N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase-dependent manner
ABSTRACT Insulin and its receptor are both present in the central nervous system and are implicated in neuronal survival and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here we show that insulin activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (PKB), and results in an induction of long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal CA1 neurones. Evaluation of the frequency-response curve of synaptic plasticity revealed that insulin induced LTD at 0.033 Hz and LTP at 10 Hz, whereas in the absence of insulin, 1 Hz induced LTD and 100 Hz induced LTP. LTD induction in the presence of insulin required low frequency synaptic stimulation (0.033 Hz) and blockade of GABAergic transmission. The LTD or LTP induced in the presence of insulin was N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor specific as it could be inhibited by alpha-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), a specific NMDA receptor antagonist. LTD induction was also facilitated by lowering the extracellular Mg(2+) concentration, indicating an involvement of NMDA receptors. Inhibition of PI3K signalling or discontinuing synaptic stimulation also prevented this LTD. These results show that insulin modulates activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which requires activation of NMDA receptors and the PI3K pathway. The results obtained provide a mechanistic link between insulin and synaptic plasticity, and explain how insulin functions as a neuromodulator.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular dementia is caused by various factors, including increased age, diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. Adiponectin is an adipokine secreted by adipose tissue. Adiponectin is widely known as a regulating factor related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin plasma levels decrease with age. Decreased adiponectin increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Adiponectin improves hypertension and atherosclerosis by acting as a vasodilator and antiatherogenic factor. Moreover, adiponectin is involved in cognitive dysfunction via modulation of insulin signal transduction in the brain. Case-control studies demonstrate the association between low adiponectin and increased risk of stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. This review summarizes the recent findings on the association between risk factors for vascular dementia and adiponectin. To emphasize this relationship, we will discuss the importance of research regarding the role of adiponectin in vascular dementia.BioMed Research International 04/2014; 2014:261672. DOI:10.1155/2014/261672 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3β with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors.Neurobiology of Disease 03/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.03.011 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Contrary to the previous belief that insulin does not act in the brain, studies in the last three decades have demonstrated important roles of insulin and insulin signal transduction in various functions of the central nervous system. Deregulated brain insulin signaling and its role in molecular pathogenesis have recently been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this article, we review the roles of brain insulin signaling in memory and cognition, the metabolism of amyloid β precursor protein, and tau phosphorylation. We further discuss deficiencies of brain insulin signaling and glucose metabolism, their roles in the development of AD, and recent studies that target the brain insulin signaling pathway for the treatment of AD. It is clear now that deregulation of brain insulin signaling plays an important role in the development of sporadic AD. The brain insulin signaling pathway also offers a promising therapeutic target for treating AD and probably other neurodegenerative disorders.Neuroscience Bulletin 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12264-013-1408-x · 1.83 Impact Factor