Over the past 2 decades, there has been a marked improvement in survival among patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. As a result of the increased life expectancy, children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus are now faced with considerable morbidity resulting from sequelae of disease activity, side effects of medications, and comorbid conditions. This morbidity affects physical and psychosocial well-being. Therefore, the need is increasing for monitoring the development of irreversible organ damage and the effect of the disease and its treatment on daily life. This review summarizes the recent advances in the investigation on survival, accumulated damage, and health-related quality of life in patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.
The 5-year survival rate of patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus approaches 100%, and the 10-year survival rate is close to 90%. The development of cumulative organ damage has been observed in 50-60% of patients. Children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus have been found to have poorer health-related quality of life, particularly in the physical domain, and lower socioeconomic achievements than their healthy peers.
The prolongation of the life span of patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus has been accompanied by a substantial risk of damage accumulation and has not been paralleled by an improvement in health-related quality of life. This problem highlights the need of measuring cumulative organ damage and health-related quality of life in the long-term follow-up of patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus and of designing new treatments and treatment strategies that are aimed not only at improving control of disease activity but also at minimizing the development of nonreversible damage.
"Extended treatment with high concentrations of S1P (≥ 10 µM) would likely enhance its cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-361 cells. Although high concentrations of exogenous S1P may lead to necrosis of normal tissues, severe S1P-associated side effects are not expected due to the following two reasons: first, S1P is an endogenous molecule and should possess lower toxicity and better tolerance than synthetic anticancer agents; and second, the human body may have a response system to deal with high S1P concentrations as the normal serum S1P level is around 0.2 - 0.9 µM 17 and short time of exposure to high concentrations of S1P is unlikely to be life-threatening or severely detrimental as the serum S1P level was observed to rise up to 15 µM in children patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) 18 and the 5-year survival rate for JSLE is close to 100% 19. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an important sphingolipid metabolite regulating key physiological and pathophysiological processes such as cell growth and survival and tumor angiogenesis. Significant research evidence links elevated cellular S1P concentration to cancer cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Physiological levels of S1P are tightly regulated and maintained at the low nanomolar level. In cancer, S1P may exist well beyond the low nanomolar level. Recently, we reported that S1P selectively induces cell apoptosis of the breast cancer MCF7 cell line at concentrations higher than 1 µM and co-administration of 1 µM S1P significantly increased the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy drug docetaxel. In this study, we show that S1P caused minor increases in cell proliferation or apoptosis, in a concentration-dependent manner, yet co-administration of 10 µM S1P exhibited a significant synergistic effect with chemotherapy drugs docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. S1P increased the cytotoxic potential of each drug by 2-fold, 3-fold, and 10-fold, respectively, against the breast cancer metastatic cell line MDA-MB-361. This synergism may suggest improved anticancer drug therapy by co-administration of exogenous S1P.
Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 4(4):315-9. DOI:10.7150/jca.5956 · 3.27 Impact Factor
"On the other hand, neuropsychiatric damage was higher than many other series. In these other studies the neuropsychiatric damage ranged from 15.8%  to 10.7% . The higher percentage of neuropsychiatric damage in our series is mainly in the form of seizures, persisting more than 6 months, or cognitive impairment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of cumulative organ damage among Egyptian children with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE) and the relationships between the organ damage and the demographic data, clinical variables, and disease activity.
A total of 148 patients with jSLE have been followed in the pediatric rheumatology clinic and section at Cairo University. These patients were evaluated by retrospective chart review. The organ system damage due to SLE was measured using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI). Risk factors for damage were also studied including demographic criteria as well as clinical and laboratory manifestations.
Overall, 43.9% of the patients had damage within a mean of 6.57 ± 3.59 years of disease diagnosis. Neuropsychiatric (NPS-21%) and renal (16.9%) system involvement were observed most frequently, followed by cardiovascular (11.5%), skin (9.5%), pulmonary (6.1%), and ocular (4.8%), with a mean SDI score of 0.93 ± 1.37. In our study, the presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations at diagnosis showed the strongest association with the presence of later disease damage.The number of SLE diagnostic criteria at presentation was strongly associated with the total SDI score, and the renal damage was significantly more prevalent in patients with age at disease diagnosis below 10 years of age. A higher mean disease duration was found in patients with musculoskeletal damage.
We found that cumulative organ damage, as measured by the SDI, was present in 43.9% of Egyptian patients with juvenile-onset SLE. The damage was significantly more likely in patients who had more SLE diagnostic criteria at time of disease presentation and NPS manifestations at the time of diagnosis.
"Organ systems assessed include muscle, skeletal, cutaneous, gastrointestinal , pulmonary, cardiac, peripheral vascular, endocrine, ocular, infectious, malignancy and others. Compared with the systemic lupus erythematosus damage instrument, the MDI has the advantage of including estimation of linear growth and pubertal development, which are significant and potential sources of damage that are specific of pediatric patients with chronic rheumatic diseases . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects primarily the skin and muscles. Although the prognosis of JDM has improved considerably in the last three decades, a number of patients may develop irreversible damage due to the disease activity or its treatment. This damage may cause permanent disability and affect the quality of life of patients and their families. In the clinical management of patients with JDM, there is, therefore, the need of monitoring the level of disease activity, the accrual of organ damage, and the impact of the illness on patients' daily living. A reliable assessment of these different aspects of disease requires the availability of well-designed and standardized clinical tools. In the recent years, there has been increasing collaborative effort to devise new assessment measures and these measures have been included into disease activity and damage core sets of outcome variables that have been developed through international consensus. In addition, preliminary definitions of clinical improvement for patients with JDM and other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies have been created. In this review, the latest advances in the development of standardized instruments for the clinical assessment of JDM patients are illustrated and the recent international efforts that have led to the development of core sets of outcome measures and to preliminary definitions of improvement for JDM clinical trials are summarized.
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