Cardiac arrhythmia is an important cause of death in patients with heart failure (HF) and inherited arrhythmia syndromes, such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Alterations in intracellular calcium handling play a prominent role in the generation of arrhythmias in the failing heart. Diastolic calcium leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2) may initiate delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activity leading to arrhythmias. Similarly, SR Ca(2+) leak through mutant RyR2 channels may cause triggered activity during exercise in patients with CPVT. Novel therapeutic approaches, based on recent advances in the understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying arrhythmias in HF and CPVT, are currently being evaluated to specifically correct defective Ca(2+) release in these lethal syndromes.
"Key factors in the development of DADs include increased SR Ca2+ load, and abnormal SR Ca2+ release (i.e., SR Ca2+ leak). In particular, aberrant RyR opening and diastolic SR leak have been shown to be a central factor in the development of DADs and lethal ventricular arrhythmias under disease conditions such as heart failure , . Consistent with the mechanism of DAD development, we found that in female rat myocytes, rapid exposure to BPA or E2 markedly increased SR Ca2+ reuptake, SR load, and the fraction of SR Ca2+ release on a beat-to-beat basis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is wide-spread human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous estrogenic endocrine disruptor that has been implicated as having potentially harmful effects on human heart health. Higher urine BPA concentrations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, neither the nature nor the mechanism(s) of BPA action on the heart are understood.
The rapid (<7 min) effects of BPA and 17β-estradiol (E2) in the heart and ventricular myocytes from rodents were investigated in the present study. In isolated ventricular myocytes from young adult females, but not males, physiological concentrations of BPA or E2 (10⁻⁹ M) rapidly induced arrhythmogenic triggered activities. The effects of BPA were particularly pronounced when combined with estradiol. Under conditions of catecholamine stimulation, E2 and BPA promoted ventricular arrhythmias in female, but not male, hearts. The cellular mechanism of the female-specific pro-arrhythmic effects of BPA and E2 were investigated. Exposure to E2 and/or BPA rapidly altered myocyte Ca²⁺ handling; in particular, estrogens markedly increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca²⁺ leak, and increased SR Ca²⁺ load. Ryanodine (10⁻⁷ M) inhibition of SR Ca²⁺ leak suppressed estrogen-induced triggered activities. The rapid response of female myocytes to estrogens was abolished in an estrogen receptor (ER) β knockout mouse model.
Physiologically-relevant concentrations of BPA and E2 promote arrhythmias in a female-specific manner in rat hearts; the pro-arrhythmic actions of estrogens are mediated by ERβ-signaling through alterations of myocyte Ca²⁺ handling, particularly increases in SR Ca²⁺ leak. Our study provides the first experimental evidence suggesting that exposure to estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and the unique sensitivity of female hearts to estrogens may play a role in arrhythmogenesis in the female heart.
PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e25455. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025455 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death accounts for 100,000 victims in Germany per year. Predominantly, patients with structural heart disease such as coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy are affected. However, approximately 5-10% of sudden deaths hit patients without structural disease of the heart. The proportion of young patients (< 40 years of age) in this group is even higher (10-20%). In younger patients significantly more diseases like hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and primary electrical diseases of the heart could be observed such as long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The primary electrical diseases are different concerning their electrocardiographical pattern, clinical triggers of arrhythmias, results of invasive diagnostics and therapy. Meanwhile, molecular genetic screening can reveal specific mutations of ion channels and can identify consecutive functional defects. The significance of programmed ventricular stimulation is at present unclear concerning risk stratification in patients with Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome and of no significance in long QT syndrome and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardias. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the therapy of choice in most symptomatic patients. With increasing knowledge as a result of sophisticated molecular genetic screening, identification of underlying ion channel defects and new details of the mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis, a potential genotype-guided therapy will gain more importance in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CPU86017 is a novel Class III antiarrhythmic agent derived from berberine and with an improved pharmacological profile, solubility and bioavailability. It is active in suppressing arrhythmias in several animal models. The ED(50) of CPU86017 for suppressing ischemia/reperfusion arrhythmias in rats was 0.22 mg/kg against 2.23 mg/kg for lidocaine. CPU86017 is about 10-fold more potent than lidocaine. It blocks I(K(R.tail)), I(K(S)), and I(Ca(L)) currents with IC(50) values of 25, 14.4, and 11.5 microM, respectively. The plasma t(1/2) of CPU86017, i.v. bolus, in rabbits and dogs is approximately 90 min. The effective plasma levels of CPU86017 in rabbits required to delay the appearance of oubain-induced ventricular arrhythmias is in the range of 0.13-0.31 microg/mL. Higher levels of the drug are required to eliminate ventricular arrhythmias produced by two-stage ligation of the coronary artery in anesthetized dogs. Drug levels in myocardium are much higher than in plasma. CPU80617 has an antioxidant effect that is likely to contribute to its antiarrhythmic activity. The abnormal expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and of FKBP12.6 is reduced by CPU80617 during its ventricular tachyarrhythmia-suppressing action. CPU86017 appears to be a promising antiarrhythmic agent with a cardioprotective action. It can be expected to protect from malignant arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by suppressing molecular events caused by channelopathies.
Cardiovascular Drug Reviews 02/2006; 24(2):101-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1527-3466.2006.00101.x · 5.21 Impact Factor
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