Interprofessionality as the field of interprofessional practice and interprofessional education: An emerging concept

Faculty of Nursing, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal of Interprofessional Care (Impact Factor: 1.4). 06/2005; 19 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):8-20. DOI: 10.1080/13561820500081604
Source: PubMed


This paper proposes a new concept and a frame of reference that should permit the development of a better understanding of a phenomenon that is the development of a cohesive and integrated health care practice among professionals in response to clients' needs. The concept is named "interprofessionality" and aims to draw a clear distinction with another concept, that of interdisciplinarity. The utilization of the concept of interdisciplinarity, which originally concerns the development of integrated knowledge in response to fragmented disciplinary knowledge, has caused some confusion. We need a concept that will specifically concern the development of a cohesive practice among different professionals from the same organization or from different organizations and the factors influencing it. There is no concept that focuses clearly on this field. Interprofessionality concerns the processes and determinants that influence interprofessional education initiatives as well as determinants and processes inherent to interprofessional collaboration. Interprofessionality also involves analysis of the linkages between these two spheres of activity. An attempt to bridge the gap between interprofessional education and interprofessional practice is long overdue; the two fields of inquiry need a common basis for analysis. To this end, we propose a frame of reference, an interprofessional education for collaborative patient-centred practice framework. The framework establishes linkages between the determinants and processes of collaboration at several levels, including links among learners, teachers and professionals (micro level), links at the organizational level between teaching and health organizations (meso level) and links among systems such as political, socio-economic and cultural systems (macro level). Research must play a key role in the development of interprofessionality in order to document these linkages and the results of initiatives as they are proposed and implemented. We also believe that interprofessionality will not be pursued without the requisite political will.

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    • "Petri [19] suggested that interprofessional teamwork is best attained through an education that promotes mutual trust and respect, effective and open communication, and the awareness and acceptance of the roles, skills, and responsibilities of participating disciplines. Damour and Oansan [20] noted that educational efforts should be marshalled early in the curriculum, prior to the solidifying of professional identities and the formation of stereotypes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about the ways in which nursing and medical students perceive and understand their roles in interprofessional teamwork. A 2010 report by the World Health Organization highlights the importance of students’ understanding of teamwork in healthcare, and their ability to be effective team players. This study aims at describing nursing and medical students’ perceptions of interprofessional teamwork, focusing on experiences and recommendations that can be used to guide future educational efforts. Methods The study uses a qualitative research design. Data were collected from four focus group interviews: two homogenous groups (one with medical students, one with nursing students) and two mixed groups (medical and nursing students). Results The results show that traditional patterns of professional role perception still prevail and strongly influence students’ professional attitudes about taking responsibility and sharing responsibility across disciplinary and professional boundaries. It was found that many students had experienced group cultures detrimental to team work. Focusing on clinical training, the study found a substantial variation in perception with regard to the different arenas for interprofessional teamwork, ranging from arenas with collaborative learning to arenas characterized by distrust, confrontation, disrespect and hierarchical structure. Conclusions This study underlines the importance of a stronger focus on interprofessional teamwork in health care education, particularly in clinical training. The study results suggest that the daily rounds and pre-visit “huddles,” or alternatively psychiatric wards, offer arenas suitable for interprofessional training, in keeping with the students’ assessments and criteria proposed in previous studies.
    BMC Medical Education 08/2014; 14(1):170. DOI:10.1186/1472-6920-14-170 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Research has established that coordinated, collaborative service delivery improves clinical (i.e., mortality, length of stay, readmission) and patient-reported (i.e., satisfaction, health related quality of life) outcomes for a variety of acute and chronic conditions including cancer [1,4,5]. This concept of inter-professional collaborative care (ICC) requires ongoing interaction among various types of health professionals to assess, plan, negotiate, provide, and review care for individual patients [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inter-professional collaborative care (ICC) for cancer leads to multiple system, organizational, professional, and patient benefits, but is limited by numerous challenges. Empirical research on interventions that promote or enable ICC is sparse so guidance on how to achieve ICC is lacking. Research shows that ICC for diagnosis could be improved. Diagnostic assessment programs (DAPs) appear to be a promising model for enabling ICC. The purpose of this study was to explore how DAP structure and function enable ICC, and whether that may be associated with organizational and clinical outcomes. A case study approach will be used to explore ICC among eight DAPs that vary by type of cancer (lung, breast), academic status, and geographic region. To describe DAP function and outcomes, and gather information that will enable costing, recommendations expressed in DAP standards and clinical guidelines will be assessed through retrospective observational study. Data will be acquired from databases maintained by participating DAPs and the provincial cancer agency, and confirmed by and supplemented with review of medical records. We will conduct a pilot study to explore the feasibility of estimating the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio using person-level data from medical records and other sources. Interviews will be conducted with health professionals, staff, and referring physicians from each DAP to learn about barriers and facilitators of ICC. Qualitative methods based on a grounded approach will be used to guide sampling, data collection and analysis. Findings may reveal opportunities for unique structures, interventions or tools that enable ICC that could be developed, implemented, and evaluated through future research. This information will serve as a formative needs assessment to identify the nature of ongoing or required improvements, which can be directly used by our decision maker collaborators, and as a framework by policy makers, cancer system managers, and DAP managers elsewhere to strategically plan for and implement diagnostic cancer services.
    Implementation Science 01/2014; 9(1):4. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-9-4 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "between teacher and health care education suggests that these two fields may have much to offer each other in terms of pedagogical practice. Where IPE differs substantially in scope from teacher education is the inclusion of the following two 6 6 foci: exploring learning settings for IPE, and examining the nature of 'what' should be taught, as it pertains to collaborations defined as " interprofessional process[es] of communication and decision making " (Oandasan and Reeves 2005 p.30). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stemming from the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1989, the development of whole school approaches to Health Literacy have manifested in the Health Promoting Schools approach. Health Promoting Schools (HPS) have become increasingly prominent across Australia and internationally. The HPS emerged from a 'settings approach' which views schools as sites for health promotion, interventions, and activities. This approach requires collaboration between schools, community partners, and government agencies making schools increasingly spaces of interprofessional interaction. While there is widespread use and recognition of this approach across Australia, implementation is hampered by three key factors: the traditional structure and function of schools, teacher's practices and skills, and time and resources. The focus for this paper is the role teacher education can play in preparing pre-servivce teachers for work in the increasingly interprofessional context of schools. Interprofessional Education (IPE), defined as members (or students) of two or more professions learn[ing] with, from and about one another to improve collaboration and the quality of care, has been used internationally in health and social care professions and higher education institutions as a means for preparing students to work across interprofessional teams. Examples of IPE in education settings are used to present a rationale for including elements of IPE in teacher education classrooms and professional experience.
    Australian Teacher Education Association National Conference 2013, Brisbane, QLD.; 07/2013
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