Rpe65 is the retinoid isomerase in bovine retinal pigment epithelium.

Jules Stein Eye Institute, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 09/2005; 122(3):449-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.06.042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The first event in light perception is absorption of a photon by an opsin pigment, which induces isomerization of its 11-cis-retinaldehyde chromophore. Restoration of light sensitivity to the bleached opsin requires chemical regeneration of 11-cis-retinaldehyde through an enzymatic pathway called the visual cycle. The isomerase, which converts an all-trans-retinyl ester to 11-cis-retinol, has never been identified. Here, we performed an unbiased cDNA expression screen to identify this isomerase. We discovered that the isomerase is a previously characterized protein called Rpe65. We confirmed our identification of the isomerase by demonstrating catalytic activity in mammalian and insect cells that express Rpe65. Mutations in the human RPE65 gene cause a blinding disease of infancy called Leber congenital amaurosis. Rpe65 with the Leber-associated C330Y and Y368H substitutions had no isomerase activity. Identification of Rpe65 as the isomerase explains the phenotypes in rpe65-/- knockout mice and in humans with Leber congenital amaurosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Cone photoreceptors require effective pigment regeneration mechanisms to maintain their sensitivity in the light. Our previous studies in carp cones suggested the presence of an unconventional and very effective mechanism to produce 11-cis retinal, the necessary component in pigment regeneration. In this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction, AL-OL coupling reaction), formation of 11-cis retinal, i.e., oxidation of 11-cis retinol is coupled to reduction of an aldehyde at a 1:1 molar ratio without exogenous NADP(H) which is usually required in this kind of reaction. Here, we identified carp retinol dehydrogenase 13-like (RDH13L) as an enzyme catalyzing the AL-OL coupling reaction. RDH13L was partially purified from purified carp cones, identified as a candidate protein, and its AL-OL coupling activity was confirmed using recombinant RDH13L. We further examined the substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and expression level of RDH13L. Based on these results, we concluded that RDH13L contributes to a significant part, but not all, of the AL-OL coupling activity in carp cones. RDH13L contained tightly bound NADP+ which presumably functions as a cofactor in the reaction. Mouse RDH14, a mouse homolog of carp RDH13L, also showed the AL-OL coupling activity. Interestingly, although carp cone membranes, carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 all showed the coupling activity at 15-37 °C, they also showed a conventional NADP+-dependent 11-cis retinol oxidation activity above 25 °C without addition of aldehydes. This dual mechanism of 11-cis retinal synthesis attained by carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 probably contribute to effective pigment regeneration in cones that function in the light. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.629162 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular uptake of vitamin A, production of visual chromophore and triglyceride homeostasis in adipocytes depend on two representatives of the vertebrate N1pC/P60 protein family, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) and HRAS-like tumor suppressor 3 (HRASLS3). Both proteins function as lipid-metabolizing enzymes but differ in their substrate preferences and dominant catalytic activity. The mechanism of this catalytic diversity is not understood. Here, by using a gain-of-function approach, we identified a specific sequence responsible for the substrate specificity of N1pC/P60 proteins. A 2.2-Å crystal structure of the HRASLS3-LRAT chimeric enzyme in a thioester catalytic intermediate state revealed a major structural rearrangement accompanied by three-dimensional domain swapping dimerization not observed in native HRASLS proteins. Structural changes affecting the active site environment contributed to slower hydrolysis of the catalytic intermediate, supporting efficient acyl transfer. These findings reveal structural adaptation that facilitates selective catalysis and mechanism responsible for diverse substrate specificity within the LRAT-like enzyme family.
    Nature Chemical Biology 11/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1687 · 12.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The retinal pigment epithelium-specific 65 kDa protein is an isomerase encoded by the RPE65 gene (MIM 180069) that is responsible for an essential enzymatic step required for the function of the visual cycle. Mutations in the RPE65 gene cause not only subtype II of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) but also early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (EOSRD). This study aims to investigate a Chinese case diagnosed as EOSRD and to characterize the polymorphisms of the RPE65 gene. A seven-year-old girl with clinical symptoms of EOSRD and her parents were recruited into this study. Ophthalmologic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp, Optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus examination with dilated pupils, were performed to determine the clinical characteristics of the whole family. We amplified and sequenced the entire coding region and adjacent intronic sequences of the coding regions of the RPE65 gene for the whole family to explore the possible mutation. Our results demonstrate that the patient exhibited the typical clinically features of EOSRD. Her bilateral decimal visual acuity was 0.3 and 0.4 in the left and right eyes, respectively. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to assess the retinal stratification for the whole family. All together, we identified four mutations within the RPE65 gene (c.1056G>A, c.1243+2T>A, c.1338+20A>C and c.1590C>A) in the patient. Among the four mutations, c.1056G>A and c.1338+20A>C had been reported previously and another two were found for the first time in this study. Her mother also carried the novel mutation (c.1243+2T>A). Either a single or a compound heterozygous or a homozygous one mutation is expected to cause EOSRD because mutations of RPE65 gene usually cause an autosomal recessive disease. Therefore, we speculate that the c.1590C>A mutation together with the c.1243+2T>A mutation may cause the patient's phenotype.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112400. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112400 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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