Generation of biologically active interleukin-1beta by meprin B.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is synthesized as an inactive precursor molecule that must be proteolytically processed to generate the biologically active form. Maturation of the precursor is primarily performed by caspase-1, an intracellular cysteine protease; however, processing by other proteases has been described. Meprins are cell surface and secreted metalloproteases expressed by renal and intestinal brush-border membranes, leukocytes, and cancer cells. In this study we show that purified recombinant meprin B can process the interleukin-1beta precursor to a biologically active form. Amino-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry analysis of the product of digestion by activated meprin B determined that proteolytic cleavage resulted in an additional six amino acids relative to the site utilized by caspase-1. The biological activity of the meprin B-cleaved cytokine was confirmed by measuring the proliferative response of helper T-cells. These results suggest that meprin may play an important role in activation of this proinflammatory cytokine in various pathophysiological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Meprin (EC 184.108.40.206) is an oligomeric metalloendopeptidase found in microvillar membranes of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we present the first report on the expression of meprin beta in rat glomerular epithelial cells and suggest a potential involvement in experimental glomerular disease. We detected meprin beta in glomeruli of immunostained rat kidney sections on the protein level and by quantitative RT-PCR of laser-capture microdissected glomeruli on the mRNA level. Using immuno-gold staining we identified the membrane of podocyte foot processes as the main site of meprin beta expression. The glomerular meprin beta expression pattern was altered in anti-Thy 1.1 and passive Heymann nephritis (PHN). In addition, the meprin beta staining pattern in the latter was reminiscent of immunostaining with the sheep anti-Fx1A antiserum, commonly used in PHN induction. Using Western blot and immunoprecipitation assays we demonstrated that meprin beta is recognized by Fx1A antiserum and may therefore represent an auto-antigen in PHN. In anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis we observed a striking redistribution of meprin beta in tubular epithelial cells from the apical to the basolateral side and the cytosol. This might point to an involvement of meprin beta in this form of glomerulonephritis.PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(5):e2278. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Absence of definitive diagnostic markers limits the accuracy of clinical evaluations of suspected KD with significant increases in morbidity. In turn, incomplete understanding of its molecular pathogenesis hinders the identification of rational targets needed to improve therapy. We used high-accuracy mass spectrometry proteomics to analyse over 2000 unique proteins in clinical urine specimens of patients with KD. We discovered that urine proteomes of patients with KD, but not those with mimicking conditions, were enriched for markers of cellular injury such as filamin and talin, immune regulators such as complement regulator CSMD3, immune pattern recognition receptor muclin, and immune cytokine protease meprin A. Significant elevations of filamin C and meprin A were detected in both the serum and urine in two independent cohorts of patients with KD, comprised of a total of 236 patients. Meprin A and filamin C exhibited superior diagnostic performance as compared to currently used markers of disease in a blinded case-control study of 107 patients with suspected KD, with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve of 0.98 (95% confidence intervals [CI] of 0.97-1 and 0.95-1, respectively). Notably, meprin A was enriched in the coronary artery lesions of a mouse model of KD. In all, urine proteome profiles revealed novel candidate molecular markers of KD, including filamin C and meprin A that exhibit excellent diagnostic performance. These disease markers may improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluations of children with suspected KD, lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and allow the development of a biological classification of Kawasaki disease.EMBO Molecular Medicine 12/2012; · 7.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Meprin metalloproteases, composed of alpha and/or beta subunits, consist of membrane-bound and secreted forms that are abundantly expressed in proximal tubules of the kidney as well as secreted into the urinary tract. Previous studies indicated that meprin metalloproteases play a role in pathological conditions such as ischemic acute renal failure and urinary tract infection. The aim of this work was to examine the role of meprins in endotoxemic acute renal failure using meprin alpha knockout (alphaKO), meprin beta knockout (betaKO), and wild-type (WT) mice. Differences among the responses of the genotypes were observed as early as 1 h after challenge with 2.5 mg/kg ip Escherichia coli LPS, establishing roles for meprins in the endotoxemic response. Meprin alphaKO mice displayed lower blood urea nitrogen levels and decreased nitric oxide levels, indicative of a decreased systemic response to LPS compared with WT and meprin betaKO mice. Serum cytokine profiles showed lower levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the meprin alphaKO mice within 3 h after LPS challenge and confirmed a role for meprins in the early phases of the host response. Meprin alphaKO mice were also hyporesponsive to LPS administered to the bladder, exhibiting significantly less bladder edema, leukocyte infiltration, and bladder permeability than WT mice. These data indicate that meprin A contributes to the renal and urogenital pathogenesis of endotoxicity.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 11/2008; 296(1):F135-44. · 3.61 Impact Factor