H2O2 accumulation by catalase reduction changes MAP kinase signaling in aged human skin in vivo.
ABSTRACT To understand the molecular alterations occurring during the aging process, we compared mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities in the intrinsically aged and photoaged skins in the same individuals. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular events related to MAP kinase changes in intrinsically aged and photoaged skins. We found that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity in photoaged skin was reduced, and that the activities of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase were increased compared with intrinsically aged skin in the same individuals. Phospho-c-Jun levels and activator protein 1 activities in photoaged skin were also higher than in intrinsically aged skin. Moreover, catalase activity was found to be much reduced in primary dermal fibroblasts from photoaged skin, and as a result, H2O2 accumulated more in primary dermal fibroblasts in photoaged skin. In addition, treating primary dermal fibroblasts from photoaged skin with catalase reduced H2O2 levels, reversed aging-dependent MAP kinase changes, and inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression. Our results indicate that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species due to catalase attenuation may be a critical aspect of the MAP kinase signaling changes that may lead to skin aging and photoaging in human skin in vivo. Thus, the induction and regulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes including catalase may offer a strategy for preventing and treating skin aging.
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ABSTRACT: Azelaic acid (AzA) has been used for the treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, such as acne and rosacea. Interestingly, an improvement in skin texture has been observed after long-time treatment with AzA. We previously unrevealed that anti-inflammatory activity of AzA involves a specific activation of PPARγ, a nuclear receptor that plays a relevant role in inflammation and even in ageing processes. As rosacea has been considered as a photo-aggravated disease, we investigated the ability of AzA to counteract stress-induced premature cell senescence (SIPS). We employed a SIPS model based on single exposure of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) to UVA and 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), previously reported to activate a senescence-like phenotype, including long-term growth arrest, flattened morphology and increased synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal). We found that PUVA-treated HDFs grown in the presence of AzA maintained their morphology and reduced MMP-1 release and SA-β-galactosidase-positive cells. Moreover, AzA induced a reduction in ROS generation, an up-modulation of antioxidant enzymes and a decrease in cell membrane lipid damages in PUVA-treated HDFs. Further evidences of AzA anti-senescence effect were repression of p53 and p21, increase in type I pro-collagen and abrogation of the enhanced expression of growth factors, such as HGF and SCF. Interestingly, PUVA-SIPS showed a decreased activation of PPARγ and AzA counteracted this effect, suggesting that AzA effect involves PPARγ modulation. All together these data showed that AzA interferes with PUVA-induced senescence-like phenotype and its ability to activate PPAR-γ provides relevant insights into the anti-senescence mechanism.Experimental Dermatology 01/2013; 22(1):41-7. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is known to be effective in the photorejuvenation of photoaged skin. However, the molecular mechanisms of rejuvenation by PDT remain elusive. In this study we aimed to understand the molecular events occurring during the photorejuvenation after PDT in dermal fibroblasts in vitro. First, we found that PDT conditions resulted in an increased fibroblasts proliferation and motility in vitro. Under this condition, cells had increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Importantly, PDT induced a prolonged activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) with a corresponding increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and collagen type Iα mRNA and protein. Moreover, inhibition of PDT-induced ERK activation significantly suppressed fibroblast proliferation and expression of MMP-3 and collagen type Iα following PDT. In addition, NAC (an antioxidant) inhibited PDT-induced fibroblast proliferation and ERK activation indicating that prolonged ERK activation and intracellular ROS contribute to the proliferation of fibroblasts and the dermal remodeling process for skin rejuvenation. We also identified increased collagen volume and decreased elastotic materials which are used as markers of photoaging in human skin samples using histochemistry. Results from this study suggest that intracellular ROS stimulated by PDT in dermal fibroblasts lead to prolonged activation of ERK, and eventually fibroblast proliferation and activation. Our data thus reveal a molecular mechanism underlying the skin rejuvenation effect of PDT.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 21 January 2013; doi:10.1038/jid.2013.25.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, there has been much effort to find effective ingredients which can prevent or retard cutaneous skin aging after topical or systemic use. Here, we investigated the effects of the atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, on acute UV-induced responses and as well as skin aging. Interestingly, we observed that H(H2O)m application to human skin prevented UV-induced erythema and DNA damage. And H(H2O)m significantly prevented UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in human skin in vivo. We found that H(H2O)m prevented UV-induced ROS generation and inhibited UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2 and IL-6 expressions, and UV-induced JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation in HaCaT cells. Next, we investigated the effects of H(H2O)m on intrinsically aged or photoaged skin of elderly subjects. In intrinsically aged skin, H(H2O)m application significantly reduced constitutive expressions of MMP-1, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA. Additionally, H(H2O)m significantly increased procollagen mRNA and also decreased MMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in photoaged facial skin. These results demonstrated that local application of H(H2O)m may prevent UV-induced skin inflammation and can modulate intrinsic skin aging and photoaging processes. Therefore, we suggest that modifying the atmospheric gas environment within a room may be a new way to regulate skin functions or skin aging.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61696. · 3.73 Impact Factor