Available from: Alice Beatriz Mombach Pinheiro Machado
"In Brazil, few studies address early neonatal infection by GBS. The prevalence of GBS infection among neonates varied between 1.1 and 1.4 cases per 1,000 live births, in Porto Alegre (21) and Campinas (23), respectively. A recent study in a maternity hospital from Manaus (AM, Brazil) showed that the main microorganism isolated in blood cultures of newborns with early-onset sepsis was S. agalactiae (25). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method) to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively). The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PuRPOse: to assess the prevalence of group B streptococcus colonization (GBS) in pregnant women in prodrome or in labor. MethOds: vaginal and rectal cultures were collected from 201 pregnant women, in the admission sector of a public maternity center in the northeast region of Brazil (São Luís, Maranhão). The samples obtained were inoculated in a Todd-Hewith's selective culture medium and after that they were sub-cultivated in blood-agar plates. The CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Petersen) test was used to identify GBS, which was then serologically confirmed by the BioMérieux Api 20 Strep kit microtest. GBS positive samples were submitted to an antibiotic sensitivity test. Sociodemographic variables, gynecological-obstetrical antecedents, and perinatal outcomes were studied. The Epi-Info 3.3.2 programs from World Health Organization and Statistical Package for Social Sciences 14.0 version were used for the statistical analysis. The prevalence ratio was used as risk measure, considering p≤0.05 as significance level, and accepting 80% power. Results: the prevalence of SGB colonization in the mothers was 20.4%. There was no association between the sociodemographic variables or gynecological-obstetrical antecedents and a larger presence of SGB colonization. There were two cases of infectious outbreak among neonatal babies from colonized mothers, but hemocultures resulted negative. High resistance rates were found for the following antibiotics: clindamycin, 25.4%; erythromycin, 23.4% and ceftriaxone, 12.7%. COnClusiOns: the prevalence of SGB colonization was high among the mothers, similar
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies have shown possible risk relations among oral illnesses, mainly periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as prematurity, low birth weight and preeclampsia. The explanation for this hypothesis is based on the fact that periodontal disease is an infectious state, which may increase maternal serum cytokines through the release of such agents directly from the periodontal pocket or by through the dissemination of pathogenic bacteria, inducing systemic production. This assumption is based on the knowledge that the physiopathology of the pregnancy complications cited above is associated with the presence of some cytokines in the maternal serum. The present study work has the objective to review literature in search of evidence to these alleged associations. Although a number of clinical studies have been found in this review, we noticed a lack of methodological standards, what limits the conclusions about this topic. On the other side, the fact that periodontal disease is not yet a confirmed risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes does not reduce the importance of oral health maintenance during pregnancy, since it is important to allow adequate feeding without pain and bleeding in order to maintain an adequate nutritional supply.
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia 07/2007; 29(7):370-375. DOI:10.1590/S0100-72032007000700008
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