Early invasive diagnostic techniques in pregnant women who are infected with the HIV: a multicenter case series.
ABSTRACT Studies that mostly were conducted before the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatments have reported that antenatal invasive procedures markedly increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus vertical transmission. We aimed to evaluate the vertical transmission rate and other maternal and neonatal complications among women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus who underwent antenatal invasive procedures during the second trimester of pregnancy and who were delivered after the advent of antiretroviral regimens.
We conducted a multicenter case series of women who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus who underwent amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling or cordocentesis during the second trimester of pregnancy and who were delivered after January 1, 1997.
Sixty-three of 775 recruited women (8.1%) had performed early invasive diagnostic techniques . This rate has improved progressively from 4% in 1997 to 14%. Two of 60 viable infants (3.3%; 95% CI, 0.6%-10.1%) were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. This rate did not differ significantly from the transmission rate that was observed in women who did not undergo antenatal invasive techniques (1.7%; P = .30).
The current risk of human immunodeficiency virus vertical transmission that is associated with early invasive diagnostic techniques is lower than previously reported.
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ABSTRACT: The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A-women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B-women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2013; 2013:914272.
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ABSTRACT: The current standard of care in Canadian obstetrical practice is to offer pregnant women the opportunity for prenatal investigation to diagnose congenital abnormalities. Prenatal amniocentesis is Canada's most commonly practiced invasive procedure for the diagnosis of chromosomal and single gene disorders. The potential risk of intrapartum HIV transmission during amniocentesis raises several ethical concerns and limits the availability of prenatal genetic testing for HIV-positive pregnant women. Complete virological suppression with antiretroviral therapy may alleviate the risk of mother-to-child transmission during amniocentesis and increase accessibility of this important diagnostic tool in the HIV-positive population. The present report describes a case involving a 32-year-old HIV-positive pregnant woman whose plasma viral load was undetectable on antiretroviral therapy; she underwent successful prenatal amniocentesis without transmission of HIV to her infant.The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 01/2013; 24(3):e91-5. · 0.49 Impact Factor
Article: Fetal blood sampling.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We sought to review indications, technical aspects, risks, and recommendations for fetal blood sampling (FBS). A systematic review was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library using the terms "fetal blood sampling," "percutaneous umbilical blood sampling," and "cordocentesis." The search was restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through July 2012. Priority was given to articles reporting original research, in particular randomized controlled trials, although review articles and commentaries also were consulted. Abstracts of research presented at symposia and scientific conferences were not considered adequate for inclusion in this document. Evidence reports and guidelines published by organizations or institutions such as the National Institutes of Health, Agency for Health Research and Quality, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine were also reviewed, and additional studies were located by reviewing bibliographies of identified articles. Grade (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology was employed for defining strength of recommendations and rating quality of evidence. Consistent with US Preventive Task Force guidelines, references were evaluated for quality based on the highest level of evidence. Ultrasound-guided FBS is the only procedure that provides direct access to the fetal circulation. When invasive testing is planned for suspected severe fetal anemia or thrombocytopenia, we recommend FBS as the procedure of choice, with availability of immediate transfusion if confirmed. We recommend against the use of FBS for indications in which other less invasive, and therefore lower risk, alternatives are available. The overall success rate of FBS is high, and blood samples can be obtained in >98% of patients. We suggest that counseling for FBS include discussion about the potential risk of FBS that may include, but may not be limited to: bleeding from puncture site (20-30%); fetal bradycardia (5-10%); pregnancy loss (≥1.3%, depending on indication, gestational age, and placental penetration); and vertical transmission of hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus. We recommend that FBS be performed by experienced operators at centers with expertise in invasive fetal procedures when feasible.American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 09/2013; 209(3):170-80. · 3.97 Impact Factor