The perirhinal cortex of the rat is necessary for spatial memory retention long after but not soon after learning.
ABSTRACT Many observations in humans and experimental animals support the view that the hippocampus is critical immediately after learning in order for long-term memory formation to take place. However, exactly when the medial temporal cortices adjacent to the hippocampus are necessary for this process to occur normally is not yet well known. Using a spatial task, we studied whether the perirhinal cortex of rats is necessary to establish representations in long-term memory. Results showed that, in a spatial task sensitive to hippocampal lesions, control and perirhinal lesioned rats can both learn at the same rate (Experiment 1). Interestingly, a differential involvement of the perirhinal cortex in memory retention was observed as time passes after learning. Thus, 24 days following the end of learning, lesioned and control rats remembered the task perfectly as measured by a retraining test. In contrast, 74 days after the learning the perirhinal animals showed a profound impairment in the retention of the spatial information (Experiment 2). Taken together, these results suggest that the perirhinal region is critical for the formation of long-term spatial memory. However, its contribution to memory formation and retention is time-dependent, it being necessary only long after learning takes place and not during the phase immediately following acquisition.
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ABSTRACT: The CA1 to perirhinal cortex projection is one of multiple hippocampal-neocortical projections considered to be involved in memory consolidation. This projection has been shown to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP) following stimulation of CA1. Here we examined the pharmacological properties underpinning the plasticity observed in this projection. A stimulating electrode was inserted into the area CA1 and a recording electrode was inserted into the perirhinal cortex of urethane-anaesthetised Wistar rats. Rats (n=6 in each drug group) were administered with either saline (0.09%), MK-801 (NMDA antagonist; 0.1 mg/kg) or CNQX (AMPA/kainate antagonist; 1.5 mg/kg). Baseline recordings were made for 10 min by stimulating area CA1 (0.05 Hz stimulation protocol). High-frequency stimulation (HFS; 250 Hz) was performed and post-HFS fEPSP recordings were made for 1 h (0.05 Hz, as above). Baseline and post-HFS paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) recordings were performed across six different interpulse intervals. CA1 and perirhinal cortex tissue samples were taken from the stimulated and unstimulated hemispheres of each rat brain and analysed using a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) ELISA. Results indicate that LTP was induced in the saline and MK-801 groups but not in the CNQX group; fEPSPs in the latter group rapidly returned to baseline levels following a short period of post-tetanic potentiation. Drug treatment and HFS had no effect on PPF levels. Drug treatment significantly reduced concentrations of both CA1 and perirhinal BDNF and prevented stimulation-induced increases in BDNF in CA1. This molecular and electrophysiological data suggests that LTP in the CA1-perirhinal cortex projection may require activation of postsynaptic AMPA/kainate receptors in order to sustain LTP.Brain research 03/2009; 1265:53-64. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously hypothesized that achievement of recovery of brain function after the injury requires the reconstruction of neuronal networks, including neurite regeneration and synapse reformation. Kihi-to is composed of twelve crude drugs, some of which have already been shown to possess neurite extension properties in our previous studies. The effect of Kihi-to on memory deficit has not been examined. Thus, the goal of the present study is to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of Kihi-to on memory, neurite growth and synapse reconstruction. Effects of Kihi-to, a traditional Japanese-Chinese traditional medicine, on memory deficits and losses of neurites and synapses were examined using Alzheimer's disease model mice. Improvements of Abeta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy by Kihi-to and the mechanism were investigated in cultured cortical neurons. Administration of Kihi-to for consecutive 3 days resulted in marked improvements of Abeta(25-35)-induced impairments in memory acquisition, memory retention, and object recognition memory in mice. Immunohistochemical comparisons suggested that Kihi-to attenuated neuritic, synaptic and myelin losses in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Kihi-to also attenuated the calpain increase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. When Kihi-to was added to cells 4 days after Abeta(25-35) treatment, axonal and dendritic outgrowths in cultured cortical neurons were restored as demonstrated by extended lengths of phosphorylated neurofilament-H (P-NF-H) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP)2-positive neurites. Abeta(25-35)-induced cell death in cortical culture was also markedly inhibited by Kihi-to. Since NF-H, MAP2 and myelin basic protein (MBP) are substrates of calpain, and calpain is known to be involved in Abeta-induced axonal atrophy, expression levels of calpain and calpastatin were measured. Treatment with Kihi-to inhibited the Abeta(25-35)-evoked increase in the calpain level and decrease in the calpastatin level. In addition, Kihi-to inhibited Abeta(25-35)-induced calcium entry. In conclusion Kihi-to clearly improved the memory impairment and losses of neurites and synapses.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2008; 8:49. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several studies have shown that slight modifications in the standard reference spatial memory procedure normally used for allocentric learning in the Morris water maze and the radial maze, can overcome the classic deficit in allocentric navigation typically observed in rats with hippocampal damage. In these special paradigms, however, there is only intramaze manipulation of a salient stimulus. The present study was designed to investigate whether extramaze manipulations produce a similar outcome. With this aim a four-arm plus-shaped maze and a reference spatial memory paradigm were used, in which the goal arm was marked in two ways: by a prominent extramaze cue (intermittent light), which maintained a constant relation with the goal, and by the extramaze constellation of stimuli around the maze. Experiment 1 showed that, unlike the standard version of the task, using this special training procedure hippocampally-damaged rats could learn a place response as quickly as control animals; importantly, one day after reaching criterion, lesioned and control subjects performed the task perfectly during a transfer test in which the salient extramaze stimulus used during the acquisition was removed. However, although acquisition deficit was overcomed in these lesioned animals, a profound deficit in retention was detected 15 days later. Experiment 2 suggests that although under our special paradigm hippocampal rats can learn a place response, spatial memory only can be expressed when the requisites of behavioral flexibility are minimal. These findings suggest that, under certain circumstances, extrahippocampal structures are sufficient for building a coherent allocentric representation of space; however, flexible memory expression is dependent, fundamentally, on hippocampal functioning.Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 05/2010; 93(4):506-14. · 4.04 Impact Factor