Social interaction improves experimental stroke outcome.
ABSTRACT Social interaction can have a profound effect on health. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether affiliative social interactions before and after stroke improve ischemic outcomes as assessed through histological analysis and behavioral assays.
Male and female C57BL/6 mice were housed individually or with an ovariectomized female. Behavioral assessments were made 24 hours before 60 or 90 minutes of transient intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or SHAM surgery and after 7 days of reperfusion. Two hours after behavioral testing on day 7, infarct size was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium histology, and blood samples were collected for assessment of corticosterone and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations.
Pair housing significantly decreased infarct size and improved contralateral paw use in 60-minute MCAO males and 90-minute MCAO females compared with socially isolated cohorts. Housing condition had no significant effect on infarct size in females that underwent 60 minutes of MCAO, but pair housing was associated with improved contralateral paw use relative to socially isolated mice. In a separate cohort of males, intraischemic CRP concentration was significantly reduced in pair-housed males relative to isolated males.
Affiliative interaction during the peri-ischemic period reduces intraischemic CRP concentration, decreases ischemic damage in male and female mice, and improves behavioral outcome.
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ABSTRACT: Cumulative evidence has indicated a critical role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in ischemic brain damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is a key enzyme in poly(ADP-ribose) catabolism. Our previous studies showed that PARG inhibitors, gallotannin (GT) and nobotanin B, can profoundly decrease oxidative cell death in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that intranasal delivery of GT can decrease ischemic brain damage by inhibiting PARG. Intranasal delivery of 25 mg / kg GT within 5 hours after a 2-hour focal brain ischemia markedly decreased the infarct formation and neurological deficits of rats. The GT administration also increased poly(ADP-ribose) in the ischemic brains, suggesting that GT acts as a PARG inhibitor in vivo. Furthermore, the GT treatment abolished nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) in the ischemic brains, suggesting that prevention of AIF translocation may contribute to the protective effects of GT. In contrast, intravenous injection of GT, at 2 hours after ischemic onset, did not reduce ischemic brain damage. Collectively, our findings suggest that PARG inhibition can significantly decrease ischemic brain injury, possibly by blocking AIF translocation. This study also highlights distinct merits of intranasal drug delivery for treating CNS diseases.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2007; 12:4986-96. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Article: Intranasal administration with NAD+ profoundly decreases brain injury in a rat model of transient focal ischemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Excessive poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation plays a significant role in ischemic brain damage. Increasing evidence has supported the hypothesis that PARP-1 induces cell death by depleting intracellular NAD+. Based on our in vitro finding that NAD+ treatment can abolish PARP-1-mediated cell death, we hypothesized that NAD+ administration may decrease ischemic brain injury. In this study, we used a rat model of transient focal ischemia to test this hypothesis. We observed that intranasal NAD+ delivery significantly increased NAD+ contents in the brains. Intranasal delivery with 10 mg/kg NAD+ at 2 hours after ischemic onset profoundly decreased infarct formation when assessed either at 24 or 72 hours after ischemia. The NAD+ administration also significantly attenuated ischemia-induced neurological deficits. In contrast, intranasal administration with 10 mg/kg nicotinamide did not decrease ischemic brain damage. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that NAD+ metabolism is a new target for treating brain ischemia, and that NAD+ administration may be a novel strategy for decreasing brain damage in cerebral ischemia and possibly other PARP-1-associated neurological diseases.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2007; 12:2728-34. · 3.52 Impact Factor