The BmChi-h gene, a bacterial-type chitinase gene of Bombyx mori, encodes a functional exochitinase that plays a role in the chitin degradation during the molting process.
ABSTRACT The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been recently demonstrated to contain a bacterial-type chitinase gene (BmChi-h) in addition to a well-characterized endochitinase gene (BmChitinase). The deduced amino acid sequence of BmChi-h showed extensive structural similarities with chitinases from bacteria such as Serratia marcescens chiA and baculoviruses (v-CHIA). Bacterial-type chitinase genes have not been found from any eukaryotes and viruses except for lepidopteran insects and lepidopteran baculoviruses. Thus, it was suggested that BmChi-h may be derived from a bacterial or baculovirus chitinase gene via horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we investigated the biological function of BmChi-h. Our enzymological study indicated that a chitinase encoded by BmChi-h has exo-type substrate preference, which is the same as S. marcescens chiA and v-CHIA, and different from BmChitinase, which has endo-type substrate preference. An immunohistochemical study revealed that BmChi-h localizes in the chitin-containing tissues during the molting stages, indicating that it plays a role in chitin degradation during molting. These results suggest that BmChi-h (exochitinase) and BmChitinase (endochitinase) may catalyze a native chitin by a concerted mechanism. Cloning and comparison of BmChi-h orthologues revealed that bacterial-type chitinase genes are highly conserved among lepidopteran insects, suggesting that the utilization of a bacterial-type chitinase during the molting process may be a general feature of lepidopteran insects.
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ABSTRACT: The glycoside hydrolase 18 (GH18) family of chitinases is a multigene family that plays various roles, such as ecdysis, embryonic development, allergic inflammation and so on. Efforts are still needed to reveal their functional diversification in an evolutionary and systematic manner. We collected 85 GH18 genes from eukaryotic representatives. The domain architectures of GH18 proteins were analyzed and several conserved patterns were identified. It was observed that some (11 proteins) GH18 members in Ecdysozoa or fungi possess repeats of catalytic domains and/or chitin-binding domains (ChtBs). The domain repeats are likely to meet requirements for higher efficiency of chitin degradation in chitin-containing species. On the contrary, all vertebrate GH18 proteins contain no more than one catalytic domain or ChtB. The results from homologous analysis, domain architectures, exon arrangements and synteny loci supported two evolutionary paths for the GH18 family. One path experienced gene expansion and contraction several times during evolution, covering most of GH18 members except CHID1 (stabilin-1 interacting partner) and its homologs. Proteins in this path underwent frequent domain gain and loss, as well as domain recombination, that could achieve versatility in function. The other path is comparatively conserved. The CHID1 gene evolved without gene duplication except in Danio rerio. Domain architectures of CHID1 orthologs are all identical. The diverse phylogeny of the GH18 family in arthropod is also presented.Glycobiology 07/2011; 22(1):23-34. DOI:10.1093/glycob/cwr092 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A bioinformatics-based investigation of three insect species with completed genome sequences has revealed that insect chitinase-like proteins (glycosylhydrolase family 18) are encoded by a rather large and diverse group of genes. We identified 16, 16 and 13 putative chitinase-like genes in the genomic databases of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. Chitinase-like proteins encoded by this gene family were classified into five groups based on phylogenetic analyses. Group I chitinases are secreted proteins that are the most abundant such enzymes in molting fluid and/or integument, and represent the prototype enzyme of the family, with a single copy each of the catalytic domain and chitin-binding domain (ChBD) connected by an S/T-rich linker polypeptide. Group II chitinases are unusually larger-sized secreted proteins that contain multiple catalytic domains and ChBDs. Group III chitinases contain two catalytic domains and are predicted to be membrane-anchored proteins. Group IV chitinases are the most divergent. They usually lack a ChBD and/or an S/T-rich linker domain, and are known or predicted to be secreted proteins found in gut or fat body. Group V proteins include the putative chitinase-like imaginal disc growth factors (IDGFs). In each of the three insect genomes, multiple genes encode group IV and group V chitinase-like proteins. In contrast, groups I-III are each represented by only a singe gene in each species.Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 05/2008; 38(4):452-66. DOI:10.1016/j.ibmb.2007.06.010 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Baculovirus-encoded chitinases (V-CHIAs) were first proposed to be acquired from a bacterium via horizontal gene transfer. However, we have recently reported that lepidopteran hosts also encode v-chiA orthologs. Here we describe comparative studies of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) chitinase and its host ortholog, BmChi-h. We constructed recombinant BmNPVs in which native and modified forms of BmChi-h were driven under the polyhedrin promoter and the authentic v-chiA was deleted. Western blot analysis indicated that BmCHI-h was rapidly secreted from virus-infected BmN cells whereas BmNPV CHIA was localized within the virus-infected cells; probably because of the presence of a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention motif on BmNPV CHIA. Enzymological studies showed that BmNPV CHIA was able to retain much higher chitinolytic activity under alkaline conditions. For B. mori larvae infected with v-chiA-deleted BmNPV, the terminal liquefaction of dead larvae and the activation of baculovirus-encoded cysteine protease were not observed, and the introduction of BmChi-h did not rescue these defects. Our findings show that BmNPV chiA possesses unique features that are not shared by host orthologs, which may reflect functional specialization of baculovirus chitinases.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 07/2006; 345(2):825-33. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.112 · 2.28 Impact Factor