Estimating Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Australia

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 7.33). 09/2005; 11(8):1257-64. DOI: 10.3201/eid1108.041367
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We estimated for Australia the number of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths due to foodborne gastroenteritis in a typical year, circa 2000. The total amount of infectious gastroenteritis was measured by using a national telephone survey. The foodborne proportion was estimated from Australian data on each of 16 pathogens. To account for uncertainty, we used simulation techniques to calculate 95% credibility intervals (CrI). The estimate of incidence of gastroenteritis in Australia is 17.2 million (95% confidence interval 14.5-19.9 million) cases per year. We estimate that 32% (95% CrI 24%-40%) are foodborne, which equals 0.3 (95% CrI 0.2-0.4) episodes per person, or 5.4 million (95% CrI 4.0-6.9 million) cases annually in Australia. Norovirus, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. cause the most illnesses. In addition, foodborne gastroenteritis causes approximately 15,000 (95% CrI 11,000-18,000) hospitalizations and 80 (95% CrI 40-120) deaths annually. This study highlights global public health concerns about foodborne diseases and the need for standardized methods, including assessment of uncertainty, for international comparison.

  • Source
    • "Young adults represent a population that is at a higher risk of experiencing foodborne-illness, as food safety has been found to be particularly poor in this population (Byrd- Bredbenner et al., 2007). In addition to impacting upon individual health and wellbeing, foodborne-illness has societal costs and medical costs (Hall et al., 2005; Mullan, 2009). A substantial proportion of foodborne-illness occurs due to inappropriate consumer food handling, including poor hand-hygiene and crosscontamination (Griffith, Mullan, & Price, 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to firstly design an intervention to decrease cross-contamination in the home by the development of the habitual behavior of microwaving the dishcloth/sponge and secondly to determine if this behavior could be maintained over time. Participants were randomly assigned to either a high-frequency or low-frequency reminder habit building condition or a control condition. Results indicated that for both habit building conditions, food-safety behavior significantly increased compared to the control group and these changes were maintained at follow-up. Additionally, improvement in behavior was mediated by increase in habit strength. The major conclusion of this study is that providing a cue to action and reminders build food-safety habits that result in changes in food-safety behaviors. This has major implications for other food-safety interventions.
    Food Research International 12/2014; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2014.09.027 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Atmar et al. (2008) O G ¼ daily per capita incidence of gastroenteritis in Australia Probability Mixture w [2.52 Â 10 À3 ], see Table 3 Hall et al. (2004) O N ¼ proportion of norovirus-related cases per gastroenteritis case in Australia Proportion 0.3948 Hall et al. (2005) P ¼ total population in Shepparton Person 29,553 ABS (2012) W T ¼ daily total wastewater volume at the Shepparton WTP L/day Mixture w [1.79 Â 10 7 ], see Table 3 GVW (2013) R WSP ¼ removal of viruses through waste stabilization pond treatment log 10 unit Uniform (0, 4) w [1.99] Da Silva et al. (2008); El-Deeb Ghazy et al. (2008); Oragui et al. (1995); Oragui et al. (1987) R AT ¼ removal of viruses through advanced treatment "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wastewater can be an important resource for water-scarce regions of the world, but a major barrier to its use is the associated health risk. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a probabilistic modeling technique used to determine the health risks from wastewater reuse, but only a handful of QMRA studies have examined the norovirus health risks from consumption of vegetables irrigated with human wastewater, even though norovirus is a, if not the most, significant microbial cause of diarrheal disease world-wide. Furthermore, the majority of these studies have focused only on risks from lettuce consumption. To meet the knowledge gap in health risks for other vegetables, a QMRA model was constructed for agricultural wastewater irrigation in the regional city of Shepparton, Australia, using fecal shedding rates to estimate norovirus concentration in raw sewage. Annual norovirus disease burden was estimated for the consumption of lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, Asian vegetables, and cucumber after irrigation with treated wastewater. Results indicate that the waste stabilization pond treatment did not have sufficient virus removal to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold for acceptable level of risk for wastewater reuse, but addition of disinfection treatments provided acceptable results for consumption of cucumber and broccoli. This is the first QMRA study to incorporate virus accumulation from previous wastewater irrigation events.
    Water Research 02/2014; 54C:347-362. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.060 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "SaVs are mainly associated with sporadic acute gastroenteritis in young children (Hansman et al., 2007a; Khamrin et al., 2007; Monica et al., 2007) and are less commonly involved than NoV in epidemic gastroenteritis (Green, 2007), although some outbreaks have been described (Johansson et al., 2005; Hansman et al., 2007b, c). The burden of calicivirus (including NoV) has been clearly documented in numerous geographical areas worldwide (Hall et al., 2005; EFSA, 2009; Scallan et al., 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous viruses of human or animal origin can spread in the environment and infect people via water and food, mostly through ingestion and occasionally through skin contact. These viruses are released into the environment by various routes including water run-offs and aerosols. Furthermore, zoonotic viruses may infect humans exposed to contaminated surface waters. Foodstuffs of animal origin can be contaminated, and their consumption may cause human infection if the viruses are not inactivated during food processing. Molecular epidemiology and surveillance of environmental samples are necessary to elucidate the public health hazards associated with exposure to environmental viruses. Whereas monitoring of viral nucleic acids by PCR methods is relatively straightforward and well documented, detection of infectious virus particles is technically more demanding and not always possible (e.g. human norovirus or hepatitis E virus). The human pathogenic viruses that are most relevant in this context are nonenveloped and belong to the families of the Caliciviridae, Adenoviridae, Hepeviridae, Picornaviridae and Reoviridae. Sampling methods and strategies, first-choice detection methods and evaluation criteria are reviewed.
    FEMS Microbiology Reviews 05/2012; 36(4):786-814. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00306.x · 13.81 Impact Factor
Show more