Results of inlay cartilage myringoplasty in terms of closure of central tympanic membrane perforations.
ABSTRACT There is a current effort to perform myringoplasty for tympanic membrane perforations as a day-stay procedure. In 1998, an inlay myringoplasty using tragal cartilage/perichondrium was described. A retrospective study was performed by the author to analyse the results of inlay cartilage myringoplasty, in terms of closure of simple perforations of the tympanic membrane. The results of a control group of previous cases of underlay temporalis fascia myringoplasty were retrieved from the hospital records. All the operations in both groups were performed by the same author at the same institution. The operation of inlay cartilage butterfly myringoplasty has been performed in 28 ears with simple central tympanic membrane perforations. Inconsistent results have been obtained, in that only 43 per cent showed closure of the perforation at the most recent follow-up. A control group of standard underlay temporalis fascia myringoplasty has been performed by the same author in 23 ears. Eighty-three per cent of the perforations were closed at the last follow-up. The difference is statistically highly significant (p < 0.01).
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ABSTRACT: As female participation in the labor force continues to grow in the US, so too does reliance on non-parental child care. However, the high cost of child care has impeded the ability of many working mothers to find sufficient child care for their children. As a result, as recently as 1998 over eight million children ages five to 14 spent time without adult supervision on a regular basis in the US. I examine the effect of the lack of adult supervision after school on a panel of school-age children using ordinary least squares and fixed effect estimation. I find that children with adult supervision are less likely to skip school, use alcohol or marijuana, steal something or hurt someone. These findings suggest that expanding after school or child care programs typically geared to preschool-age children to accommodate more school-age children may have important consequences for their human capital development and labor market outcomes later in life.Journal of Public Economics. 08/2002;
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ABSTRACT: Using microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study, we assess "time crunch" for families with children in Canada, Germany, Sweden, the U.K. and the U.S. Both theory and empirical evidence suggest that both time and money are important inputs to the well-being of parents and children. We present cross-country comparisons of "total available adult hours" under different assumptions about the varying time needs of families of different size. We also present estimates of "time shortages." In all cases, we provide separate estimates for families located at different points in the country income distributions, since being short of both time and money is likely to be particularly problematic. Although paid work hours are highest for high-income families, we nonetheless find significant numbers of lower-income families in which parents work very long hours in the paid labor market; this is particularly the case in the U.S. Copyright © 2007 The Authors; Journal compilation © International Association for Research in Income and Wealth 2007.Review of Income and Wealth 02/2007; 53(3):460-483. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A positive relationship between income and child outcomes has been observed in data from numerous countries. A key question concerns the extent to which this association represents a causal relationship as opposed to unobserved heterogeneity. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to implement a series of empirical strategies for estimating the existence and size of the effect of income on three measures of cognition. Our results indicate that the effect of income on these outcomes may well be positive, but that it is likely to be smaller than conventional estimates.Canadian Journal of Economics. 02/2004; 37(4):898-917.