The gingival crevicular fluid ciprofloxacin level in subjects with gingivitis and periodontitis, and its effects on clinical parameters.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study, conducted on patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, was twofold: to find out the serum and gingival crevicular fluid concentration of ciprofloxacin, which is a common drug used effectively against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and to determine the effects of ciprofloxacin administration on clinical parameters.
A total of 32 adult patients, consisting of 16 subjects with gingivitis and 16 subjects with untreated chronic periodontitis, were included in the study. The subjects were divided into four groups: group I included eight subjects with chronic gingivitis who had not previously received any ciprofloxacin; group II included eight subjects with chronic gingivitis to whom three doses of ciprofloxacin were administered (Siprosan 500 mg) to establish adequate gingival crevicular fluid and serum concentrations of the agent; group III consisted of eight subjects with chronic periodontitis who had not received any ciprofloxacin; group IV included eight subjects with chronic periodontitis to whom three doses of ciprofloxacin were administered to establish adequate gingival crevicular fluid and serum concentrations of the agent. All patients were systemically healthy, free of pain and reported no current medication usage. Each patient was treated with scaling and/or root planing using specific hand instruments under local anesthesia. Gingival index, plaque index and clinical attachment levels of the teeth were used to determine the clinical condition of the subjects and findings were recorded at the beginning, seventh day, 21st day and third month of the study. Serum ciprofloxacin level was measured in venous blood. Approximately 5 ml of venous blood was drawn from subjects in groups II and IV using a standard venipuncture technique. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were sampled from six interproximal sites with six paper strips in the posterior region of upper jaw (excluding third molar) and all gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography.
The serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin at the first and 72nd hour were not significantly different in subjects with periodontitis compared to subjects with gingivitis. But the gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of ciprofloxacin at the same hours were significantly high in subjects with periodontitis compared to subjects with gingivitis. Both subjects with gingivitis and periodontitis had significantly higher ciprofloxacin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid than in serum. The application of ciprofloxacin did not have any positive or statistically significant effect upon the clinical parameters of the subjects with gingivitis. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the clinical attachment level scores of the subjects with periodontitis (group IV) was observed compared to group III in the 21st day and third month.
According to these results, the use of ciprofloxacin as an alternative drug in subjects with periodontitis but not gingivitis can be recommended. However, long-term studies are also needed to assess the effects of ciprofloxacin on clinical parameters.