Modulating sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 2 (SERCA2) activity: cell biological implications.

Laboratory of Physiology, O.&N. Gasthuisberg, K.U. Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Cell Calcium (Impact Factor: 4.21). 09/2005; 38(3-4):291-302. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceca.2005.06.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Of the three mammalian members belonging to the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) family, SERCA2 is evolutionary the oldest and shows the most wide tissue-expression pattern. Two major SERCA2 splice variants are well-characterized: the muscle-specific isoform SERCA2a and the housekeeping isoform SERCA2b. Recently, several interacting proteins and post-translational modifications of SERCA2 were identified which may modulate the activity of the Ca2+ pump. This review aims to give an overview of the vast literature concerning the cell biological implications of the SERCA2 isoform diversity and the factors regulating SERCA2. Proteins reported to interact with SERCA2 from the cytosolic domain involve the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, the insulin receptor substrates IRS1/2, the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein S100A1 and acylphosphatase. We will focus on the very particular position of SERCA2 as an enzyme functioning in a thin, highly fluid, leaky and cholesterol-poor membrane. Possible differential interactions of SERCA2b and SERCA2a with calreticulin, calnexin and ERp57, which could occur within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum will be discussed. Reported post-translational modifications possibly affecting pump activity involve N-glycosylation, glutathionylation and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II-dependent phosphorylation. Finally, the pronounced vulnerability to oxidative damage of SERCA2 appears to be pivotal in the etiology of various pathologies.

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