Modulating sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) activity: Cell biological implications
ABSTRACT Of the three mammalian members belonging to the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) family, SERCA2 is evolutionary the oldest and shows the most wide tissue-expression pattern. Two major SERCA2 splice variants are well-characterized: the muscle-specific isoform SERCA2a and the housekeeping isoform SERCA2b. Recently, several interacting proteins and post-translational modifications of SERCA2 were identified which may modulate the activity of the Ca2+ pump. This review aims to give an overview of the vast literature concerning the cell biological implications of the SERCA2 isoform diversity and the factors regulating SERCA2. Proteins reported to interact with SERCA2 from the cytosolic domain involve the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, the insulin receptor substrates IRS1/2, the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein S100A1 and acylphosphatase. We will focus on the very particular position of SERCA2 as an enzyme functioning in a thin, highly fluid, leaky and cholesterol-poor membrane. Possible differential interactions of SERCA2b and SERCA2a with calreticulin, calnexin and ERp57, which could occur within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum will be discussed. Reported post-translational modifications possibly affecting pump activity involve N-glycosylation, glutathionylation and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II-dependent phosphorylation. Finally, the pronounced vulnerability to oxidative damage of SERCA2 appears to be pivotal in the etiology of various pathologies.
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events.Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 01/2014; 7:48. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00048
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ABSTRACT: The precise control of Ca(2+) levels during the contraction-relaxation cycle in cardiac myocytes is extremely important for normal beat-to-beat contractile activity. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a key role controlling calcium concentration in the cytosol. The SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) transports Ca(2+) inside the SR lumen during relaxation of the cardiac myocyte. Calsequestrin (Casq2) is the main protein in the SR lumen, functioning as a Ca(2+) buffer and participating in Ca(2+) release by interacting with the ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) Ca(2+)-release channel. Alterations in normal Ca(2+) handling significantly contribute to the contractile dysfunction observed in cardiac hypertrophy and in heart failure. Transcriptional regulation of the SERCA2 gene has been extensively studied and some of the mechanisms regulating its expression have been elucidated. Overexpression of Sp1 factor in cardiac hypertrophy downregulates SERCA2 gene expression and increased levels of thyroid hormone up-regulates its transcription. Other hormones such norepinephrine, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, parathyroid hormone, prostaglandin-F2α, as well the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 also downregulate SERCA2 expression. Calcium acting through the calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway has been suggested to regulate SERCA2 and CASQ2 gene expression. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding transcriptional regulation of SERCA2 and CASQ2 genes in the normal and pathologic heart.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 07/2012; 90(8):1017-28. DOI:10.1139/y2012-057 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than a billion years ago, bacterial precursors of mitochondria became endosymbionts in what we call eukaryotic cells today. The true significance of the word "endosymbiont" has only become clear to cell biologists with the discovery that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) superorganelle dedicates a special domain for the metabolic interaction with mitochondria. This domain, identified in all eukaryotic cell systems from yeast to man and called the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), has a distinct proteome, specific tethers on the cytosolic face and regulatory proteins in the ER lumen of the ER. The MAM has distinct biochemical properties and appears as ER tubules closely apposed to mitochondria on electron micrographs. The functions of the MAM range from lipid metabolism and calcium signaling to inflammasome formation. Consistent with these functions, the MAM is enriched in lipid metabolism enzymes and calcium handling proteins. During cellular stress situations, like an altered cellular redox state, the MAM alters its set of regulatory proteins and thus alters MAM functions. Notably, this set prominently comprises ER chaperones and oxidoreductases that connect protein synthesis and folding inside the ER to mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, ER membranes associated with mitochondria also accommodate parts of the machinery that determines mitochondrial membrane dynamics and connect mitochondria to the cytoskeleton. Together, these exciting findings demonstrate that the physiological interactions between the ER and mitochondria are so bilateral that we are tempted to compare their relationship to the one of a married couple: distinct, but inseparable and certainly dependent on each other. In this paradigm, the MAM stands for the intracellular location where the two organelles tie the knot. Resembling "real life", the happy marriage between the two organelles prevents the onset of diseases that are characterized by disrupted metabolism and decreased lifespan, including neurodegeneration and cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondrial dynamics and physiology.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2012; 1833(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.04.013 · 4.66 Impact Factor