Reversing chemoresistance in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells: a role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1.
ABSTRACT To investigate the role of activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) in mediating cisplatin-induced apoptosis and the possibility of induction of JNK activity in triggering relation to DNA damage and drug resistance. We investigated the difference of cisplatin-induced activation of JNK pathway and H2O2 alteration between cisplatin-sensitive human ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its resistant variant A2780/DDP. JNK, p-JNK protein, and extracellular H2O2 levels were determined in both A2780 and A2780/DDP cells which were transfected with dominant negative allele of JNK and recombinant JNK1 separately. Both A2780 and A2780/DDP were treated with CDDP, the JNK pathway was activated and a prolonged JNK activation was maintained for at least 12 h in A2780, and only a transient activation (3 h) was detected in A2780/DDP in response to cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of JNK activity by transfection with a dominant negative allele of JNK blocked CDDP-induced apoptosis significantly in A2780 cells. Selective stimulation of the JNK pathway by lipofectamine-mediated delivery of recombinant JNK1 led to activation of c-Jun and decrease of extracellular H2O2, as well as apoptosis sensitization to CDDP in A2780/DDP cells. We concluded that JNK pathway might play an important role in mediating cisplatin-induced apoptosis in A2780 cells, and the duration of JNK activation might be critical in determining whether cells survive or undergo apoptosis. The resistance to CDDP can be reversed through activating c-Jun and decreasing extracellular generation of H2O2 by pcDNA3(FLAG)-JNK1-wt transfection in A2780/DDP cells.
- SourceAvailable from: aacrjournals.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Few nonphagocytic cells are known to generate reactive oxygen intermediates. Based on horseradish peroxidase-dependent, catalase-inhibitable oxidation of fluorescent scopoletin, seven human tumor cell lines constitutively elaborated H2O2 at rates (up to 0.5 nmol/10(4) cells/h) large enough that cumulative amounts at 4 h were comparable to the amount of H2O2 produced by phorbol ester-triggered neutrophils. Superoxide dismutase-inhibitable ferricytochrome c reduction was detectable at much lower rates. H2O2 production was inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium, a flavoprotein binder (concentration producing 50% inhibition, 0.3 microM), and diethyldithiocarbamate, a divalent cation chelator (concentration producing 50% inhibition, 3 microM), but not by cyanide or azide, inhibitors of electron transport, or by agents that inhibit xanthine oxidase, polyamine oxidase, or cytochrome P450. Cytochrome b559, present in human phagocytes and lymphocytes, was undetectable in these tumor cells by a sensitive spectrophotometric method. Mouse fibroblasts transfected with human tyrosinase complementary DNA made melanin, but not H2O2. Constitutive generation of large amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates, if it occurs in vivo, might contribute to the ability of some tumors to mutate, inhibit antiproteases, injure local tissues, and therefore promote tumor heterogeneity, invasion, and metastasis.Cancer Research 03/1991; 51(3):794-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated when cells are exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, the functional consequence of JNK activation in UV-irradiated cells has not been established. It is shown here that JNK is required for UV-induced apoptosis in primary murine embryonic fibroblasts. Fibroblasts with simultaneous targeted disruptions of all the functional Jnk genes were protected against UV-stimulated apoptosis. The absence of JNK caused a defect in the mitochondrial death signaling pathway, including the failure to release cytochrome c. These data indicate that mitochondria are influenced by proapoptotic signal transduction through the JNK pathway.Science 06/2000; 288(5467):870-4. · 31.03 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of interleukin 1 (IL-1) are mediated by the activation of protein kinase signalling pathways, which have been well characterized in cultured cells. We have investigated the activation of these pathways in rabbit liver and other tissues after the systemic administration of IL-1alpha. In liver there was 30-40-fold activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and 5-fold activation of both JNK kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MKK)4 and MKK7. IL-1alpha also caused 2-3-fold activation of p38 MAPK and degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB ('IkappaB'), although no activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) (p42/44 MAPK) was observed. The use of antibodies against specific JNK isoforms showed that, in liver, short (p46) JNK1 and long (p54) JNK2 are the predominant forms activated, with smaller amounts of long JNK1 and short JNK2. No active JNK3 was detected. A similar pattern of JNK activation was seen in lung, spleen, skeletal muscle and kidney. Significant JNK3 activity was detectable only in the brain, although little activation of the JNK pathway in response to IL-1alpha was observed in this tissue. This distribution of active JNK isoforms probably results from a different expression of JNKs within the tissues, rather than from a selective activation of isoforms. We conclude that IL-1alpha might activate a more restricted set of signalling pathways in tissues in vivo than it does in cultured cells, where ERK and JNK3 activation are often observed. Cultured cells might represent a 'repair' phenotype that undergoes a broader set of responses to the cytokine.Biochemical Journal 02/2001; 353(Pt 2):275-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor