Influence of general self-efficacy on the effects of a school-based universal primary prevention program of depressive symptoms in adolescents: a randomized and controlled follow-up study.
ABSTRACT Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach.
We designed a cognitive-behavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months.
In line with our hypothesis, participants in the prevention program remained on a low level of depressive symptoms, having strong social networks. The control group showed increasing depressive symptoms and a reduced social network. Contrary to our expectations, students low in self-efficacy benefited more from the program than high self-efficient students. Social network did not mediate the relationship between participation in the prevention program and changes in depressive symptoms.
Our results show that the prevention program had favorable effects. Further research is needed to explore the impact of self-efficacy on the effects of prevention programs.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Anxiety and mood disorders in childhood and adolescence are common and early intervention is recommended. Identifying interventions that target mental health promotion and reduce the lifetime impact of mental health issues are an important focus internationally. School-based occupational therapy may provide a practical solution to impaired functioning associated with symptoms of anxiety, without the stigma associated with traditional mental health interventions. Objectives: To describe the development and content of a recently developed intervention, “Kia Piki te Hauora: Uplifting our Health and Wellbeing”, which aims to promote wellbeing in 10-14 year old children, prior to evaluating its efficacy in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Methods: The intervention’s development followed a four-step process: (1) reviewing the theory; (2) reviewing the evidence; (3) incorporating expert opinion; and (4) trialling. Theory and evidence address occupational development, occupations as transformative, Lifestyle (Re)design, an ecological approach, and key evidence-based principles for effective interventions aimed at mental health promotion and prevention. Expert opinion was gathered to refine content and confirm its clinical relevance. An early trial of the intervention generated feedback on acceptability to children and its practicality in a school context. Findings: The intervention, comprising 8 group sessions over 8 weeks of an academic term, is led by an occupational therapist. Delivered at school, it is designed to use engagement in developmentally-appropriate activities to promote emotional wellbeing in children. It is proposed that outcomes are achieved by providing children with knowledge about health promoting occupations and ways to participate in, balance and sustain these. Conclusion: It is important for children to have access to evidence-based interventions that promote emotional wellbeing. An early step towards achieving this is to accurately describe and define such interventions. This presentation offers a guideline for the development and description of similar interventions to facilitate more robust evaluation of clinical practice.Australasian Human Development Association, Wellington; 07/2015
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ABSTRACT: Prevention efforts have greatly reduced the prevalence of many communicable and non-communicable diseases worldwide. In contrast, prevention strategies for mental disorders remain in their infancy. This paper provides a summary of the key issues surrounding mental disorder prevention and proposes a framework for how to catalyze action in the area. Three core assumptions guide this work (1) the onset of mental disorders is often preventable, (2) among those individuals with a mental disorder, the trajectory of health and functioning can be shaped by external resources, and (3) many specific and generic risk and protective factors for mental disorders are associated with specific stages of the life course. We propose that the adoption of a life course approach to prevention can be clarifying and motivating for both research and practice.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 01/2015; 50(5). DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1007-4 · 2.58 Impact Factor