Article

Associations between dementia/mild cognitive impairment and cognitive performance and activity levels in youth

Division of Psychology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.22). 08/2005; 53(7):1191-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53361.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To study the associations between dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitive performance and activity levels in youth.
Retrospective cohort study.
Research volunteers living throughout the United States.
A total of 396 persons (mean age 75) who were graduates of the same high school in the mid-1940s.
Adolescent intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were gathered from archived student records, and activity levels were determined from yearbooks. A two-stage telephone screening procedure (Modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status or Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly followed by Dementia Questionnaire) was used to determine adult cognitive status. Data were analyzed using logistic regression to model the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia/MCI) versus no cognitive impairment as a function of IQ and activity level, adjusting for sex and education.
High adolescent IQ and greater activity level were each independently associated with a lower risk for dementia/MCI (odds ratio (OR) for a 1-standard deviation increase in IQ=0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.32-0.79; OR for a unit increase in activity=0.32, 95% CI=0.12-0.84). No association was found between sex or education and adult cognitive status in this model.
High IQ and greater activity levels in youth reduce the risk for cognitive impairments in aging. The mechanism(s) underlying these associations are unknown, but intelligence may be a marker for cognitive/neurological "reserve," and involvement in activities may contribute to "reserve." Early neuropathology and ascertainment bias are also possible explanations for the observed associations.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
95 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An in-depth review is presented of the role that cognitive reserve plays in the emergence of (mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and its progression to dementia by using different indicators. The studies reviewed provide support to the hypothesis that the reserve influences the manifestation of symptoms of cognitive impairment and at least partially, in its progression to dementia. The role of indicators of reserve are discussed, such as educational level, work complexity and cognitive activity in these processes. A model is also presented that argues that people with MCI and low reserves show a steeper decline early in the process of deterioration, compared to the high level of reserve this marked deterioration would have at the end of the process, due to the protective role of this reserve. This raises the need for more empirical research to help consolidate this theoretical model.
    Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología 11/2012; 47(6):270–278. DOI:10.1016/j.regg.2012.02.006
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.07.011 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Cortex 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.08.009 · 6.04 Impact Factor