Article

Education-associated cortical glucose metabolism during sustained attention.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Beth Israel Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Neuroreport (Impact Factor: 1.64). 10/2005; 16(13):1473-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite research suggesting that education may mitigate cognitive sequelae of neural injury, little is known about interactions between education and regional brain function. We examined whether educational experience is associated with relative glucose metabolism in brain regions that are important for sustained attention and learning. Fourteen healthy adults, with 12-18 years of schooling, underwent positron emission tomography scanning with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose during an auditory continuous discrimination task. Years of education correlated positively with relative glucose metabolism in the lingual gyri (bilaterally), left posterior cingulate gyrus, and left precuneus. Previously, these structures have shown early impairment in dementia. Further investigation should explore whether metabolic changes in these regions contribute to the possible protective effect of education on cognition.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Stuart W G Derbyshire, Jul 20, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
    • "However, studies investigating the effects of education on the brain have been sparse. One experimental study found that during auditory sustained attention tasks, people with longer period of education had relatively higher glucose metabolism in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, the left precuneus, and bilateral lingual gyri in a small sample of adult subjects (Eisenberg et al., 2005). An indirect support for the effect of education on the human brain comes from clinical studies that report longer delays in dementia manifestation in patients with higher education (Bennett et al., 2003; Roe et al., 2007; Garibotto et al., 2008; Stern, 2002). "
  • Source
    • "However, studies investigating the effects of education on the brain have been sparse. One experimental study found that during auditory sustained attention tasks, people with longer period of education had relatively higher glucose metabolism in the left posterior cingulate gyrus, the left precuneus, and bilateral lingual gyri in a small sample of adult subjects (Eisenberg et al., 2005). An indirect support for the effect of education on the human brain comes from clinical studies that report longer delays in dementia manifestation in patients with higher education (Bennett et al., 2003; Roe et al., 2007; Garibotto et al., 2008; Stern, 2002). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Education involves learning new information and acquiring cognitive skills. These require various cognitive processes including learning, memory, and language. Since cognitive processes activate associated brain areas, we proposed that the brains of elderly people with longer education periods would show traces of repeated activation as increased synaptic connectivity and capillary in brain areas involved in learning, memory, and language. Utilizing positron emission topography (PET), this study examined the effect of education in the human brain utilizing the regional cerebral glucose metabolism rates (rCMRglcs). 26 elderly women with high-level education (HEG) and 26 with low-level education (LEG) were compared with regards to their regional brain activation and association between the regions. Further, graphical theoretical analysis using rCMRglcs was applied to examine differences in the functional network properties of the brain. The results showed that the HEG had higher rCMRglc in the ventral cerebral regions that are mainly involved in memory, language, and neurogenesis, while the LEG had higher rCMRglc in apical areas of the cerebrum mainly involved in motor and somatosensory functions. Functional connectivity investigated with graph theoretical analysis illustrated that the brain of the HEG compared to those of the LEG were overall more efficient, more resilient, and characterized by small-worldness. This may be one of the brain's mechanisms mediating the reserve effects found in people with higher education. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Research 12/2014; 94. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2014.12.009 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We established a new magnetic targeting system in which bone marrow stromal cells migrate through the cerebrospinal fluid to the desired site in the spinal cord in rats. Subarachnoid injection has been reported as a minimally invasive method of transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells for spinal cord injury. It may be, however, less effective than direct injection into the spinal cord in terms of cell delivery. After implantation of a magnet, subarachnoid injection of bone marrow stromal cells labeled with magnetic beads was performed. Greater numbers of bone marrow stromal cells aggregated on the surface of the spinal cord owing to the magnetic force. This targeting system may be a useful tool in minimally invasive transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells for the treatment of spinal cord injury.
    Neuroreport 09/2006; 17(12):1269-72. DOI:10.1097/01.wnr.0000227993.07799.a2 · 1.64 Impact Factor
Show more