mTOR-dependent suppression of protein phosphatase 2A is critical for phospholipase D survival signals in human breast cancer cells
ABSTRACT A critical aspect of tumor progression is the generation of survival signals that overcome default apoptotic programs. Recent studies have revealed that elevated phospholipase D activity generates survival signals in breast and perhaps other human cancers. We report here that the elevated phospholipase D activity in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 suppresses the activity of the putative tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner. Increasing the phospholipase D activity in MCF7 cells also suppressed protein phosphatase 2A activity. Elevated phospholipase D activity suppressed association of protein phosphatase 2A with both ribosomal subunit S6-kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1. Suppression of protein phosphatase 2A by SV40 small t-antigen has been reported to be critical for the transformation of human cells with SV40 early region genes. Consistent with a critical role for protein phosphatase 2A in phospholipase D survival signals, either SV40 small t-antigen or pharmacological suppression of protein phosphatase 2A restored survival signals lost by the suppression of either phospholipase D or mTOR. Blocking phospholipase D signals also led to reduced phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD at the protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylation site at Ser-112. The ability of phospholipase D to suppress protein phosphatase 2A identifies a critical target of an emerging phospholipase D/mTOR survival pathway in the transformation of human cells.
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ABSTRACT: Phospholipase D (PLD) is a membrane protein with a double role: maintenance of the structural integrity of cellular or intracellular membranes and involvement in cell signaling through the product of the catalytic reaction, PA, and through protein-protein interaction with a variety of partners. Cross-talk during PLD signaling occurs with other cancer regulators (Ras, PDGF, TGF and kinases). Elevation of either PLD1 or PLD2 (the two mammalian isoforms of PLD) is able to transform fibroblasts and contribute to cancer progression. Elevated total PLD activity, as well as overexpression, is present in a wide variety of cancers such as gastric, colorectal, renal, stomach, esophagus, lung and breast. PLD provides survival signals and is involved in migration, adhesion and invasion of cancer cells, and all are increased during PLD upregulation or, conversely, they are decreased during PLD loss of function. Eventhough the end results of PLD action as relates to downstream signaling mechanisms are still currently being elucidated, invasion, a pre-requisite for metastasis, is directly affected by PLD. This review will introduce the classical mammalian PLD's, PLD1 and PLD2, followed by the mechanisms of intracellular regulation and a status of current investigation in the crucial involvement of PLD in cancer, mostly through its role in cell migration, invasion and metastasis, that has grown exponentially in the last few years.09/2013; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.jbior.2013.08.006
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ABSTRACT: The prosurvival protein BCL-2 is frequently overexpressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. We have generated ER-positive primary breast tumor xenografts that recapitulate the primary tumors and demonstrate that the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 markedly improves tumor response to the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Despite abundant BCL-XL expression, similar efficacy was observed with the BCL-2 selective inhibitor ABT-199, revealing that BCL-2 is a crucial target. Unexpectedly, BH3 mimetics were found to counteract the side effect of tamoxifen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, BH3 mimetics synergized with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in eliciting apoptosis. Importantly, these two classes of inhibitor further enhanced tumor response in combination therapy with tamoxifen. Collectively, our findings provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of BH3 mimetics in therapy for breast cancer.Cancer cell 07/2013; 24(1):120-129. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.06.002 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene contributes to proliferative disorders including renal cell carcinoma. The consequence of VHL loss is increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha (HIFalpha), which is targeted for proteolytic degradation by the VHL gene product pVHL. HIF is a transcription factor that increases the expression of factors critical for tumorigenesis in renal cell carcinoma. We report here another regulatory component of HIFalpha expression in renal cancer cells. Phospholipase D (PLD), which is commonly elevated in renal and other cancers, is required for elevated levels of both HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha in VHL-deficient renal cancer cells. The induction of both HIF1alpha and HIF2alpha by hypoxic mimetic conditions was also dependent on PLD in renal cancer cells with restored pVHL expression. The effect of PLD activity upon HIFalpha expression was at the level of translation. PLD activity also provides a survival signal that suppresses apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in the renal cancer cells. Suppression of HIF2alpha has been shown to reverse tumorigenesis with renal cancer cells. The finding here that HIF2alpha expression is dependent on PLD in renal cancer cells suggests that targeting PLD signals may represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for targeting HIF2alpha in renal cancers where HIF2alpha is critical for tumorigenesis and elevated PLD activity is common.Oncogene 05/2008; 27(19):2746-53. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210927 · 8.56 Impact Factor